Discrimination and Poverty

  • Shelley Correll
  • Cecilia Ridgeway
  • David Pedulla

Leaders: Shelley Correll, David Pedulla, Cecilia Ridgeway 

The Poverty and Discrimination RG is charged with developing a regularized protocol for measuring the amount and extent of discrimination in labor and housing markets. It is increasingly clear that labor market discrimination, far from withering away, remains very prominent for many statuses and in many types of markets. However, because this research tradition is based on “one-off” audit studies and laboratory experiments, it is not possible to compare across studies and assess which types of discrimination are the most important or the most resistant to change. There is accordingly a need to build a standardized protocol for monitoring trends in discrimination across the various types of discrimination in play (e.g., poverty status, employment status, homelessness, economic background, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, incarceration status, citizenship, religion, disability). The twofold objective of this protocol is to make it possible to assess which types of discrimination are especially prominent and which types are growing weaker or stronger over time.

 

Discrimination - CPI Research

Title Author Media
Redesigning, Redefining Work Shelley J. Correll, Erin L. Kelly, Lindsey Trimble O’Connor, Joan C. Williams

Redesigning, Redefining Work

Author: Shelley J. Correll, Erin L. Kelly, Lindsey Trimble O’Connor, Joan C. Williams
Publisher: Work and Occupations
Date: 02/2014

The demands of today’s workplace—long hours, constant availability, self-sacrificial dedication—do not match the needs of today’s workforce, where workers struggle to reconcile competing caregiving and workplace demands. This mismatch has negative consequences for gender equality and workers’ health. Here, the authors put forth a call to action: to redesign work to better meet the needs of today’s workforce and to redefine successful work. The authors propose two avenues for future research to achieve these goals: research that (a) builds a more rigorous business case for work redesign/redefinition and (b) exposes the underlying gender and class dynamics of current work arrangements.

Redesigning, Redefining Work Shelley J. Correll, Erin L. Kelly, Lindsey Trimble O’Connor, Joan C. Williams

Redesigning, Redefining Work

Author: Shelley J. Correll, Erin L. Kelly, Lindsey Trimble O’Connor, Joan C. Williams
Publisher:
Date: 02/2014

The demands of today’s workplace—long hours, constant availability, selfsacrificial dedication—do not match the needs of today’s workforce, where workers struggle to reconcile competing caregiving and workplace demands. This mismatch has negative consequences for gender equality and workers’ health. Here, the authors put forth a call to action: to redesign work to better meet the needs of today’s workforce and to redefine successful work. The authors propose two avenues for future research to achieve these goals: research that (a) builds a more rigorous business case for work redesign/redefinition and (b) exposes the underlying gender and class dynamics of current work arrangements.

Why Status Matters for Inequality Cecilia L. Ridgeway

Why Status Matters for Inequality

Author: Cecilia L. Ridgeway
Publisher:
Date: 02/2014

To understand the mechanisms behind social inequality, this address argues that we need to more thoroughly incorporate the effects of status—inequality based on differences in esteem and respect—alongside those based on resources and power. As a micro motive for behavior, status is as significant as money and power. At a macro level, status stabilizes resource and power inequality by transforming it into cultural status beliefs about group differences regarding who is “better” (esteemed and competent). But cultural status beliefs about which groups are “better” constitute group differences as independent dimensions of inequality that generate material advantages due to group membership itself. Acting through micro-level social relations in workplaces, schools, and elsewhere, status beliefs bias evaluations of competence and suitability for authority, bias associational preferences, and evoke resistance to status challenges from low-status group members. These effects accumulate to direct members of higher status groups toward positions of resources and power while holding back lower status group members. Through these processes, status writes group differences such as gender, race, and class-based life style into organizational structures of resources and power, creating durable inequality. Status is thus a central mechanism behind durable patterns of inequality based on social differences.

Minimizing the motherhood penalty: What works, what doesn’t and why? Shelley J. Correll

Minimizing the motherhood penalty: What works, what doesn’t and why?

Author: Shelley J. Correll
Publisher:
Date: 01/2013
Framed by Gender: How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World Cecilia L. Ridgeway

Framed by Gender: How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World

Author: Cecilia L. Ridgeway
Publisher:
Date: 02/2011

In an advanced society like the U.S., where an array of processes work against gender inequality, how does this inequality persist? Integrating research from sociology, social cognition and psychology, and organizational behavior, Framed by Gender identifies the general processes through which gender as a principle of inequality rewrites itself into new forms of social and economic organization. Cecilia Ridgeway argues that people confront uncertain circumstances with gender beliefs that are more traditional than those circumstances. They implicitly draw on the too-convenient cultural frame of gender to help organize new ways of doing things, thereby re-inscribing trailing gender stereotypes into the new activities, procedures, and forms of organization. This dynamic does not make equality unattainable, but suggests a constant struggle with uneven results. Demonstrating how personal interactions translate into larger structures of inequality, Framed by Gender is a powerful and original take on the troubling endurance of gender inequality. 

discrimination - CPI Affiliates

Bart Landry's picture Bart Landry Professor of Sociology, Emeritus
University of Maryland
Kevin F. Hallock's picture Kevin F. Hallock Kenneth F. Kahn Dean, ILR School; Joseph R. Rich Professor of Economics and Human Resource Studies; Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research
Cornell University
Kevin Lang's picture Kevin Lang Professor of Economics; Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research
Boston University
Marianne LaFrance's picture Marianne LaFrance Professor of Psychology, Professor of Women's and Gender Studies
Yale University
Michael Omi's picture Michael Omi Professor of Asian American and Asian Diaspora Studies
University of California, Berkeley

Pages

Discrimination - Other Research

Title Author Media
The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations Francine D. Blau, Lawrence M. Kahn

The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations

Author: Francine D. Blau, Lawrence M. Kahn
Publisher: Journal of Economic Literature
Date: 01/2016

Using PSID microdata over the 1980-2010, we provide new empirical evidence on the extent of and trends in the gender wage gap, which declined considerably over this period. By 2010, conventional human capital variables taken together explained little of the gender wage gap, while gender differences in occupation and industry continued to be important. Moreover, the gender pay gap declined much more slowly at the top of the wage distribution that at the middle or the bottom and by 2010 was noticeably higher at the top. We then survey the literature to identify what has been learned about the explanations for the gap. We conclude that many of the traditional explanations continue to have salience. Although human capital factors are now relatively unimportant in the aggregate, women’s work force interruptions and shorter hours remain significant in high skilled occupations, possibly due to compensating differentials. Gender differences in occupations and industries, as well as differences in gender roles and the gender division of labor remain important, and research based on experimental evidence strongly suggests that discrimination cannot be discounted. Psychological attributes or noncognitive skills comprise one of the newer explanations for gender differences in outcomes. Our effort to assess the quantitative evidence on the importance of these factors suggests that they account for a small to moderate portion of the gender pay gap, considerably smaller than say occupation and industry effects, though they appear to modestly contribute to these differences.

Foreign-Born Latinos Living in Rural Areas are More Likely to Experience Health Care Discrimination: Results from Proyecto de Salud para Latinos Daniel F. López-Cevallos, S. Marie Harvey

Foreign-Born Latinos Living in Rural Areas are More Likely to Experience Health Care Discrimination: Results from Proyecto de Salud para Latinos

Author: Daniel F. López-Cevallos, S. Marie Harvey
Publisher: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Date: 09/2015

Health care discrimination is increasingly considered a significant barrier to accessing health services among minority populations, including Latinos. However, little is known about the role of immigration status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between immigration status and perceived health care discrimination among Latinos living in rural areas. Interviews were conducted among 349 young-adult Latinos (ages 18 to 25) living in rural Oregon, as part of Proyecto de Salud para Latinos. Over a third of participants experienced health care discrimination (39.5 %). Discrimination was higher among foreign-born (44.9 %) rather than US-born Latinos (31.9 %). Multivariate results showed that foreign-born Latinos were significantly more likely to experience health care discrimination, even after controlling for other relevant factors (OR = 2.10, 95 % CI 1.16–3.82). This study provides evidence that health care discrimination is prevalent among young-adult Latinos living in rural areas, particularly the foreign-born. Effective approaches towards reducing discrimination in health care settings should take into consideration the need to reform our broken immigration system.

Leave policies in challenging times: what have we learned? What lies ahead? Janet Gornick

Leave policies in challenging times: what have we learned? What lies ahead?

Author: Janet Gornick
Publisher: Community, Work & Family
Date: 05/2015

This article reflects on the studies included in this special issue on leave policies during challenging economic times. It highlights three major conclusions: (1) the regime-type framework remains illuminating; (2) the recent period is characterized by resilience of leave provisions; and (3) persistent gender disparities in leave-taking continue to shape policy debates. Three recommendations are made for future lines of work: (1) adopt a life course perspective; (2) reassess the growing emphasis on instrumental justifications for policy provision; and (3) continue to assess the possibility of unintended consequences, in particular the potential for harmful effects on women’s employment outcomes.

Effect of Neighborhood Stigma on Economic Transactions Max Besbris, Jacob William Faber, Peter Rich, Patrick Sharkey

Effect of Neighborhood Stigma on Economic Transactions

Author: Max Besbris, Jacob William Faber, Peter Rich, Patrick Sharkey
Publisher: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Date: 04/2015

The hypothesis of neighborhood stigma predicts that individuals who reside in areas known for high crime, poverty, disorder, and/or racial isolation embody the negative characteristics attributed to their communities and experience suspicion and mistrust in their interactions with strangers. This article provides an experimental test of whether neighborhood stigma affects individuals in one domain of social life: economic transactions. To evaluate the neighborhood stigma hypothesis, this study adopts an audit design in a locally organized, online classified market, using advertisements for used iPhones and randomly manipulating the neighborhood of the seller. The primary outcome under study is the number of responses generated by sellers from disadvantaged relative to advantaged neighborhoods. Advertisements from disadvantaged neighborhoods received significantly fewer responses than advertisements from advantaged neighborhoods. Results provide robust evidence that individuals from disadvantaged neighborhoods bear a stigma that influences their prospects in economic exchanges. The stigma is greater for advertisements originating from disadvantaged neighborhoods where the majority of residents are black. This evidence reveals that residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood not only affects individuals through mechanisms involving economic resources, institutional quality, and social networks but also affects residents through the perceptions of others.

Gender Inequality in Science Andrew M. Penner

Gender Inequality in Science

Author: Andrew M. Penner
Publisher: Science
Date: 01/2015

Why are women underrepresented in many areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)? This is a question with no easy answers. In science, as in many areas of life, bias against women exists (1), but researchers disagree on how much bias matters: Some suggest that the effects of bias accumulate over time to shape careers (2), whereas others argue that gender differences in preferences are much more important (3). However, it is likely impossible to disentangle the effects of societal bias and individual preferences, because people's understanding of gender differences shape their preferences (4). Research suggests differences in innate ability are unlikely to play a major role (3), but one route to more equal representation across academic fields might be convincing both women and men that this is true. On page 262 of this issue, Leslie et al. (5) show that how ability is viewed within a field plays a key role in how well women are represented.

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