Residential Segregation

  • Robert Mare
  • Daniel Lichter

Leader: Daniel Lichter, Robert Mare

The Residential Segregation RG is dedicated to updating the country’s system for measuring residential segregation. This research group has three main research commitments: (a) monitoring segregation at the extremes; (b) charting the spatial distribution of the elderly poor; and (c) developing a new GPS-based infrastructure for measuring segregation. 

Segregation at the extremes: The first line of research addresses the need to better monitor segregation at the extremes, including (a) the possible rise of enclave-style segregation at the very top (the “one percent”) and (b) the yet more troubling possibility of a resurgence of extreme segregation among the very poor. In a related recession brief, Robert Sampson has shown that poor neighborhoods have become yet poorer in the downturn, raising the possibility that hyper-segregation is indeed emerging. 

Segregation of the elderly poor: In the second line of research, research group members are charting the spatial distribution of the elderly poor, given emerging concerns about their ghettoization. This line of research, which is being carried out in collaboration with the Stanford Center on Longevity, begins with a simple descriptive mapping of elderly poor that reveals the extent to which they are indeed isolated and segregated. 

Real-time measures of segregation: The third main initiative is to develop a new infrastructure for monitoring segregation. The conventional approach of carrying out separate and static measurements of residential, school, work, friendship, and marriage segregation can be replaced with a direct behavioral framework that tracks the continuous-time patterning of inter-person contact. By exploiting GPS measurements (increasingly available, even for the poor, via mobile phones), it becomes possible to track poor, middle-class, and rich people as they move through their day and attend school, go to work, carry out their shopping, and visit friends and family. This methodology will produce a real-time measure of how much segregation there is and, in particular, the extent to which the poor are growing increasingly isolated in school, home, work, and leisure. 

Segregation - CPI Research

Title Author Media
The Buffering Hypothesis: Growing Diversity and Declining Black-White Segregation in America's Cities, Suburbs, and Small Towns? Domenico Parisi, Daniel T. Lichter, Michael C. Taquino

The Buffering Hypothesis: Growing Diversity and Declining Black-White Segregation in America's Cities, Suburbs, and Small Towns?

Author: Domenico Parisi, Daniel T. Lichter, Michael C. Taquino
Publisher:
Date: 03/2015

The conventional wisdom is that racial diversity promotes positive race relations and reduces racial residential segregation between blacks and whites. We use data from the 1990–2010 decennial censuses and 2007–2011 ACS to test this so-called “buffering hypothesis.” We identify cities, suburbs, and small towns that are virtually all white, all black, all Asian, all Hispanic, and everything in between. The results show that the most racially diverse places—those with all four racial groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) present—had the lowest black-white levels of segregation in 2010. Black-white segregation also declined most rapidly in the most racially diverse places and in places that experienced the largest recent increases in diversity. Support for the buffering hypothesis, however, is counterbalanced by continuing high segregation across cities and communities and by rapid white depopulation in the most rapidly diversifying communities. We argue for a new, spatially inclusive perspective on racial residential segregation.

60 Years After Brown: Trends and Consequences of School Segregation Sean F. Reardon, Ann Owens

60 Years After Brown: Trends and Consequences of School Segregation

Author: Sean F. Reardon, Ann Owens
Publisher:
Date: 07/2014

Since the Supreme Court's 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, researchers and policy makers have paid close attention to trends in school segregation. Here we review the evidence regarding trends and consequences of both racial and economic school segregation sinceBrown. The evidence suggests that the most significant declines in black-white school segregation occurred in the late 1960s and early 1970s. There is disagreement about the direction of more recent trends in racial segregation, largely driven by how one defines and measures segregation. Depending on the definition used, segregation has either increased substantially or changed little, although there are important differences in the trends across regions, racial groups, and institutional levels. Limited evidence on school economic segregation makes documenting trends difficult, but students appear to be more segregated by income across schools and districts today than in 1990. We also discuss the role of desegregation litigation, demographic changes, and residential segregation in shaping trends in both racial and economic segregation. We develop a general conceptual model of how and why school segregation might affect students and review the relatively thin body of empirical evidence that explicitly assesses the consequences of school segregation. We conclude with a discussion of aspects of school segregation on which further research is needed.

Income Inequality and Income Segregation Sean F. Reardon, Kendra Bischoff

Income Inequality and Income Segregation

Author: Sean F. Reardon, Kendra Bischoff
Publisher:
Date: 07/2010

Both income inequality and income segregation in the United States grew substantially from 1970 to 2000. Using data from the 100 largest metropolitan areas, we investigate whether and how income inequality affects patterns of income segregation along three dimensions—the spatial concentration of poverty and affluence; race-specific patterns of income segregation; and the geographic scale of income segregation. We find a robust relationship between income inequality and income segregation, an effect that is larger for black families than for white families. In addition, income inequality affects income segregation primarily through its effect on the large-scale spatial concentration of affluence, rather than by affecting the spatial concentration of poverty or by altering small-scale patterns of income segregation.

Racial, Educational and Religious Endogamy in the United States: A Comparative Historical Perspective Michael J. Rosenfeld

Racial, Educational and Religious Endogamy in the United States: A Comparative Historical Perspective

Author: Michael J. Rosenfeld
Publisher: Social Forces
Date: 09/2008
Neighborhood Effects on Economic Self-Sufficiency: A Reconsideration of the Moving to Opportunity Experiment Clampet-Lundquist Susan, Douglas S. Massey

Neighborhood Effects on Economic Self-Sufficiency: A Reconsideration of the Moving to Opportunity Experiment

Author: Clampet-Lundquist Susan, Douglas S. Massey
Publisher: American Journal of Sociology
Date: 07/2008

segregation - CPI Affiliates

Jeffrey Henig's picture Jeffrey Henig Professor of Political Science and Education; Politics & Education Program Director
Columbia University
Magnus Nermo's picture Magnus Nermo Professor of Sociology; Head of the Sociology Department; Associate Researcher at the Swedish Institute for Social Research
Stockholm University
Michael Sobel's picture Michael Sobel Professor of Statistics
Columbia University
Nan Dirk De Graaf's picture Nan Dirk De Graaf Professor and Official Fellow, Department of Sociology, Nuffield College
University of Oxford
Nancy Denton's picture Nancy Denton Chair, Department of Sociology; Director, Developmental Core, CSDA; Professor, School of Public Policy, University at Albany, SUNY Professor, Sociology, University at Albany, State University of New York
State University of New York - University at Albany

Pages

Segregation - Other Research

Title Author Media
Place of Work and Place of Residence: Informal Hiring Networks and Labor Market Outcomes Bayer, Patrick, Stephen L. Ross, Giorgio Topa

Place of Work and Place of Residence: Informal Hiring Networks and Labor Market Outcomes

Author: Bayer, Patrick, Stephen L. Ross, Giorgio Topa
Publisher: Journal of Political Economy
Date: 01/2005
Housing and Wealth Inequality: Racial-Ethnic Differences in Home Equity in the United States Lauren J. Krivo and Robert L Kaufman

Housing and Wealth Inequality: Racial-Ethnic Differences in Home Equity in the United States

Author: Lauren J. Krivo and Robert L Kaufman
Publisher: Demography
Date: 08/2004
Space and Unemployment: The Labor-Market Effects of Spatial Mismatch Jan K. Brueckner , Yves Zenou

Space and Unemployment: The Labor-Market Effects of Spatial Mismatch

Author: Jan K. Brueckner , Yves Zenou
Publisher: Journal of Labor Economics
Date: 01/2003
Black-White Differences in Wealth and Asset Composition Blau, Francine D., and John W. Graham

Black-White Differences in Wealth and Asset Composition

Author: Blau, Francine D., and John W. Graham
Publisher: Quarterly Journal of Economics
Date: 03/1989
Tally's Corner: A Study of Negro Streetcorner Men Elliot Liebow

Tally's Corner: A Study of Negro Streetcorner Men

Author: Elliot Liebow
Publisher: Little, Brown and Company
Date:

Segregation - Multimedia

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