Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration

  • C. Matthew Snipp
  • Tomas Jimenez
  • Linda Burton
  • Hazel Markus
  • Douglas Massey
  • Marybeth Mattingly

Leaders: Linda Burton, Tomás Jiménez, Hazel Markus, Douglas Massey, Marybeth Mattingly, C. Matthew Snipp

The CPI has an extensive research program on race, ethnicity, immigration, and poverty. The National Poverty Study, for example, is designed to rigorously compare differences across rural black, deindustrialized, reservation, and other “racialized” poverty forms. The CPI also runs a comprehensive program on Hispanic poverty that explores such topics as the “chilling effect” of anti-immigrant laws on program use, the reasons why, contrary to much speculation, the Hispanic poverty rate has not taken off, and the causes of the so-called Hispanic Health Paradox (see, for example, our Pathways Magazine special report on poverty, inequality, and mobility among Hispanics). And one of the CPI’s most distinguished affiliates, Jennifer Eberhardt (who is on the CPI directorate), is carrying out a groundbreaking big-data analysis of policing and race. We list below a sampling of other CPI projects on race, ethnicity, immigration, and poverty.

Poverty among refugees: The U.S. refugee population faces very high rates of poverty, yet we know very little about the effects of different resettlement programs and approaches. There are efforts afoot to exploit available administrative data and begin to find out what works and what doesn’t.

Arrests, race, and poverty: Why are some arrests resolved informally while others are converted into a criminal record that then has a life-long scarring effect? The process of converting an arrest into a criminal booking may play an important role in generating downstream racial disparities.

Reducing the race gap in test scores: The new Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA) is a rich resource that is providing the most systematic evidence to date on the capacity of school-district policies to reduce the racial gap in test scores.

Poverty and schooling on reservations: Why are test scores and educational outcomes on Native reservations so low (relative to the national average)? In a new project by the noted ethnographer Martin Sánchez-Jankowski, we’ll be learning more about how traditional and formal education are viewed and the ways in which they might be better integrated. 

Race And Ethnicity - CPI Research

Title Author Media
Reducing Poverty in California...Permanently Conway Collis, David B. Grusky, Sara Kimberlin, Courtney Powers, Sandra Sanchez

Reducing Poverty in California...Permanently

Author: Conway Collis, David B. Grusky, Sara Kimberlin, Courtney Powers, Sandra Sanchez
Publisher: Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality
Date: 05/2015

What if we decided to go beyond the usual lip-service commitments to reducing poverty and actually tried to do something big? Learn more about a new plan to reduce poverty—substantially and permanently—in California.

The Waning Hispanic Health Paradox Francisco Riosmena, Elisabeth Root, Jamie Humphrey, Emily Steiner, Rebecca Stubbs

The Waning Hispanic Health Paradox

Author: Francisco Riosmena, Elisabeth Root, Jamie Humphrey, Emily Steiner, Rebecca Stubbs
Publisher: Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality
Date: 05/2015

It is well known that Hispanics have been more healthy than other groups in the U.S. with a similar socioeconomic position. Is this "Hispanic Health Paradox" alive and well?

Revisiting the "Americano Dream" Van C. Tran

Revisiting the "Americano Dream"

Author: Van C. Tran
Publisher: Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality
Date: 05/2015

Is Latino assimilation stalling out because of the recent recession, rising deportation rates, and the growing popularity of rural destinations?

The “Chilling Effect” of America’s New Immigration Enforcement Regime Francisco I. Pedraza, Ling Zhu

The “Chilling Effect” of America’s New Immigration Enforcement Regime

Author: Francisco I. Pedraza, Ling Zhu
Publisher: Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality
Date: 05/2015

Are TANF enrollments declining because Hispanic immigrants are afraid that enrollment will lead to deportation?

The Real Hispanic Challenge Douglas S. Massey

The Real Hispanic Challenge

Author: Douglas S. Massey
Publisher: Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality
Date: 05/2015

The simple aim of recent immigration and border policy: Reduce the inflow of undocumented migrants. Has the policy worked? Were there unanticipated consequences?

Race And Ethnicity - CPI Affiliates

Joshua Guild Assistant Professor; Senior Research Assistant Princeton University
Kwame Anthony Appiah Laurance S. Rockefeller University Professor of Philosophy Princeton University
Loic Wacquant Professor of Sociology; Researcher, Centre de sociologie europeenne (Paris) University of California, Berkeley
Marta Tienda Professor; Maurice P. During '22 Professor in Demographic Studies Princeton University
Nancy Denton Professor of Demography State University of New York - University at Albany

Pages

Race And Ethnicity - Other Research

Title Author Media
Dynamics of Urban Neighborhood Reciprocity: Latino Peer Ties, Violence and the Navigation of School Failure and Success Maria G. Rendon

Dynamics of Urban Neighborhood Reciprocity: Latino Peer Ties, Violence and the Navigation of School Failure and Success

Author: Maria G. Rendon
Publisher: Routledge
Date: 04/2015
Deportation Discretion: A Measure of Immigrants’ Context of Reception Juan Manuel Pedroza

Deportation Discretion: A Measure of Immigrants’ Context of Reception

Author: Juan Manuel Pedroza
Publisher:
Date: 03/2015

As deportations from the United States rise to unprecedented levels, a nationwide immigration enforcement program (Secure Communities) identifies noncitizens under arrest in county jails. I directly measure how much local contexts differ from each other by observing how restrictively federal immigration law is enforced at the county level. Examining variation in deportation outcomes begins to address the paucity of clear measures to compare contexts of reception across sub-national settings. I define and analyze deportation discretion (i.e., number of noncitizens not deported out of the pool of noncitizens arrested and booked into local jails) to gain insights into county-level contexts of reception. Among noncitizens identified by Secure Communities, the protective effects of being in a county with Hispanic co-ethnics are highest where the Hispanic share is above the national average (but less than a majority of the county’s population) and where Hispanic immigrant segregation from non-Hispanic, US-born whites is either very low or very high. The Hispanic share of a county appears to have a protective effect even in Republican strongholds. The findings suggest Hispanic-dense counties (measured as the Hispanic share and the spatial distribution of Hispanic immigrants, respectively) possess the level of accumulated social capital and political clout to dull the aims of a pervasive deportation apparatus designed to expel record numbers of noncitizens.

Age at Menarche: 50-year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-born Black and White Women Krieger N, Kiang MV, Kosheleva A, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Beckfield J

Age at Menarche: 50-year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-born Black and White Women

Author: Krieger N, Kiang MV, Kosheleva A, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Beckfield J
Publisher: American Journal of Public Health
Date: 02/2015

OBJECTIVES:

We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory.

METHODS:

We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959-1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I-III (1971-1994), and NHANES 1999-2008.

RESULTS:

In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005-2008 it had reversed and was -0.33 years lower (95% CI = -0.54, -0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960.

CONCLUSIONS:

Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends.

Race, Self-Selection, and the Job Search Process Devah Pager, David S. Pedulla

Race, Self-Selection, and the Job Search Process

Author: Devah Pager, David S. Pedulla
Publisher: American Journal of Sociology
Date: 01/2015

While existing research has documented persistent barriers facing African-American job seekers, far less research has questioned how job seekers respond to this reality. Do minorities self-select into particular segments of the labor market to avoid discrimination? Such questions have remained unanswered due to the lack of data available on the positions to which job seekers apply. Drawing on two original data sets with application-specific information, we find little evidence that blacks target or avoid particular job types. Rather, blacks cast a wider net in their search than similarly situated whites, including a greater range of occupational categories and characteristics in their pool of job applications. Additionally, we show that perceptions of discrimination are associated with increased search breadth, suggesting that broad search among African-Americans represents an adaptation to labor market discrimination. Together these findings provide novel evidence on the role of race and self-selection in the job search process.

Immigration Enforcement and the “Chilling Effect” on Latino Medicaid Enrollment Francisco I. Padraza, Ling Zhu

Immigration Enforcement and the “Chilling Effect” on Latino Medicaid Enrollment

Author: Francisco I. Padraza, Ling Zhu
Publisher:
Date: 01/2015

Is contemporary interior immigration enforcement generating a “chilling effect” on Medicaiduse among Latinos? In the first section we theorize the “chilling effect” as a subclass of “massfeedback effects,” which we expand to include a narrative of contemporary Latino politics. In the second section we introduce the details of Secure Communities and explain how itfits in the broader development of America’s new immigration enforcement regime. The section after that describes our data, measures and methods. In addition to complimenting existing findings on the “chilling effect” of immigration enforcement, we present analyses that show patterns of heterogenous “chilling effects,” both in terms of nativity and immigrantgeneration, and across race/ethnicity and immigration status. The final section summarizes and concludes with thoughts about future research directions.

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