Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration

  • C. Matthew Snipp
  • Tomas Jimenez
  • Linda Burton
  • Hazel Markus
  • Douglas Massey
  • Marybeth Mattingly

Leaders: Linda Burton, Tomás Jiménez, Hazel Markus, Douglas Massey, Marybeth Mattingly, C. Matthew Snipp

The CPI has an extensive research program on race, ethnicity, immigration, and poverty. The National Poverty Study, for example, is designed to rigorously compare differences across rural black, deindustrialized, reservation, and other “racialized” poverty forms. The CPI also runs a comprehensive program on Hispanic poverty that explores such topics as the “chilling effect” of anti-immigrant laws on program use, the reasons why, contrary to much speculation, the Hispanic poverty rate has not taken off, and the causes of the so-called Hispanic Health Paradox (see, for example, our Pathways Magazine special report on poverty, inequality, and mobility among Hispanics). And one of the CPI’s most distinguished affiliates, Jennifer Eberhardt (who is on the CPI directorate), is carrying out a groundbreaking big-data analysis of policing and race. We list below a sampling of other CPI projects on race, ethnicity, immigration, and poverty.

Poverty among refugees: The U.S. refugee population faces very high rates of poverty, yet we know very little about the effects of different resettlement programs and approaches. There are efforts afoot to exploit available administrative data and begin to find out what works and what doesn’t.

Arrests, race, and poverty: Why are some arrests resolved informally while others are converted into a criminal record that then has a life-long scarring effect? The process of converting an arrest into a criminal booking may play an important role in generating downstream racial disparities.

Reducing the race gap in test scores: The new Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA) is a rich resource that is providing the most systematic evidence to date on the capacity of school-district policies to reduce the racial gap in test scores.

Poverty and schooling on reservations: Why are test scores and educational outcomes on Native reservations so low (relative to the national average)? In a new project by the noted ethnographer Martin Sánchez-Jankowski, we’ll be learning more about how traditional and formal education are viewed and the ways in which they might be better integrated. 

Race And Ethnicity - CPI Research

Title Author Media
Why Isn't the Hispanic Poverty Rate Rising? Marybeth J. Mattingly, Juan M. Pedroza

Why Isn't the Hispanic Poverty Rate Rising?

Author: Marybeth J. Mattingly, Juan M. Pedroza
Publisher: Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality
Date: 05/2015

It is often assumed that, as the size of the undocumented population grows, poverty rates among Hispanics will increase. But in fact poverty rates have proven to be stable. Why?

"Two souls, two thoughts," two self-schemas: double consciousness can have positive academic consequences for African Americans T.N. Brannon, H.R. Markus, V.J. Taylor

"Two souls, two thoughts," two self-schemas: double consciousness can have positive academic consequences for African Americans

Author: T.N. Brannon, H.R. Markus, V.J. Taylor
Publisher: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Date: 04/2015

African Americans can experience a double consciousness-the two-ness of being an American and an African American. The present research hypothesized that: (a) double consciousness can function as 2 self-schemas-an independent self-schema tied to mainstream American culture and an interdependent self-schema tied to African American culture, and (b) U.S. educational settings can leverage an interdependent self-schema associated with African American culture through inclusive multicultural practices to facilitate positive academic consequences. First, a pilot experiment and Studies 1 and 2 provided evidence that double consciousness can be conceptualized as 2 self-schemas. That is, African Americans shifted their behavior (e.g., cooperation) in schema-relevant ways from more independent when primed with mainstream American culture to more interdependent when primed with African American culture. Then, Studies 3 and 4 demonstrated that incorporating African American culture within a university setting enhanced African Americans' persistence and performance on academic-relevant tasks. Finally, using the Gates Millennium Scholars dataset (Cohort 1), Study 5 conceptually replicated Studies 3 and 4 and provided support for one process that underlies the observed positive academic consequences. Specifically, Study 5 provided evidence that engagement with African American culture (e.g., involvement with cultural events/groups) on college campuses makes an interdependent self-schema more salient that increases African American students' sense of academic fit and identification, and, in turn, enhances academic performance (self-reported grades) and persistence (advanced degree enrollment in a long-term follow-up). The discussion examines double consciousness as a basic psychological phenomenon and suggests the intra- and intergroup benefits of inclusive multicultural settings.

Was Moynihan Right? Sara McLanahan, Christopher Jencks

Was Moynihan Right?

Author: Sara McLanahan, Christopher Jencks
Publisher: Education Next
Date: 04/2015

In his 1965 report on the black family, Daniel Patrick Moynihan highlighted the rising fraction of black children growing up in households headed by unmarried mothers. He attributed the increase largely to the precarious economic position of black men, many of whom were no longer able to play their traditional role as their family’s primary breadwinner. Moynihan’s claim that growing up in a fatherless family reduced a child’s chances of educational and economic success was furiously denounced when the report appeared in 1965, with many critics calling Moynihan a racist. For the next two decades few scholars chose to investigate the effects of father absence, lest they too be demonized if their findings supported Moynihan’s argument. Fortunately, America’s best-known black sociologist, William Julius Wilson, broke this taboo in 1987, providing a candid assessment of the black family and its problems in The Truly Disadvantaged. Since then, social scientists have accumulated a lot more evidence on the effects of family structure. This article will offer some educated guesses about what that evidence means.

Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003–2011) Katherine G. Hastings, Powell O. Jose, Kristopher I. Kapphahn, Ariel T. H. Frank, Benjamin A. Goldstein, Karen Eggleston, Mark R. Cullen, Latha P. Palaniappan

Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003–2011)

Author: Katherine G. Hastings, Powell O. Jose, Kristopher I. Kapphahn, Ariel T. H. Frank, Benjamin A. Goldstein, Karen Eggleston, Mark R. Cullen, Latha P. Palaniappan
Publisher: Plos One
Date: 04/2015

Background

Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups.

Methods and Findings

We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%). Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer’s disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs.

Conclusions

Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these growing diverse populations.

Associations of family and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics with longitudinal adiposity patterns in a biracial cohort of adolescent girls C.M. Crespi, M.C. Wang, E. Seto, R. Mare, G. Gee

Associations of family and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics with longitudinal adiposity patterns in a biracial cohort of adolescent girls

Author: C.M. Crespi, M.C. Wang, E. Seto, R. Mare, G. Gee
Publisher: Biodemography and Social Biology
Date: 04/2015

Although many studies have examined the relationship of adiposity with neighborhood socioeconomic context in adults, few studies have investigated this relationship during adolescence. Using 10-year annual measurements of body mass index, expressed as z-scores (BMIz), obtained from 775 black and white participants of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a prospective cohort study of girls from pre- to postadolescence, we used multilevel modeling to investigate whether family socioeconomic status (SES) and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics (measured by census-tract median family income) explain variation in BMIz trajectory parameters. Analyses controlled for pubertal maturation. We found that lower SES was associated with higher overall levels of BMIz for both white and black girls. Additionally, lower-SES black girls had a more sustained increase in BMIz during early adolescence and reached a higher peak compared to higher-SES black girls and to white girls. Neighborhood income was associated with BMIz trajectory for black girls only. Unexpectedly, among black girls, living in higher-income neighborhoods was associated with higher overall levels of BMIz, controlling for SES. Our findings suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics may affect adolescent BMIz trajectories differently in different racial/ethnic groups.

Race And Ethnicity - CPI Affiliates

Noah Lewin-Epstein Professor Tel Aviv University
Noliwe Rooks Associate Director, Center for African-American Studies Princeton University
Pamela Smock Professor University of Michigan
Prudence L. Carter Associate Professor of Sociology Harvard University
Stephen Small Associate Professor University of California, Berkeley

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Race And Ethnicity - Other Research

Title Author Media
Alternatives to Capitalism: Proposals for a Democratic Economy Robin Hahnel, Erik Olin Wright

Alternatives to Capitalism: Proposals for a Democratic Economy

Author: Robin Hahnel, Erik Olin Wright
Publisher: New Left Project
Date: 12/2014

What would a viable free and democratic society look like? Poverty, exploitation, instability, hierarchy, subordination, environmental exhaustion, radical inequalities of wealth and power—it is not difficult to list capitalism’s myriad injustices. But is there a preferable and workable alternative?

Alternatives to Capitalism: Proposals for a Democratic Economy presents a debate between two such possibilities: Robin Hahnel’s “participatory economics” and Erik Olin Wright’s “real utopian” socialism. It is a detailed and rewarding discussion that illuminates a range of issues and dilemmas of crucial importance to any serious effort to build a better world.

The Two-Way Street of Acculturation, Discrimination, and Latino Immigration Restrictionism Francisco I. Pedraza

The Two-Way Street of Acculturation, Discrimination, and Latino Immigration Restrictionism

Author: Francisco I. Pedraza
Publisher: Political Research Quarterly
Date: 11/2014

Existing research concludes that acculturation converges Latino immigration policy views with those of Anglo-Americans. Yet, polls show few Latinos support restricting immigration. This article reconciles these statements with theory and evidence. I argue acculturation is part of a broader give-and-take process, the two-way street in which the contrast between expected and perceived treatment by the receiving community shapes whether or not Latino acculturation leads to restrictionism and “convergence” with Anglos. Regression analysis of survey data shows that perceived group discrimination, but not perceived individual discrimination or Latino within-group discrimination, moderates the link between acculturation and support for restrictive policy.

Racial Disparities in Incarceration Increase Acceptance of Punitive Policies Rebecca C. Hetey, Jennifer L. Eberhardt

Racial Disparities in Incarceration Increase Acceptance of Punitive Policies

Author: Rebecca C. Hetey, Jennifer L. Eberhardt
Publisher: Psychological Science
Date: 08/2014

During the past few decades, punitive crime policies have led to explosive growth in the United States prison population. Such policies have contributed to unprecedented incarceration rates for Blacks in particular. In this article, we consider an unexamined relationship between racial disparities and policy reform. Rather than treating racial disparities as an outcome to be measured, we exposed people to real and extreme racial disparities and observed how this drove their support for harsh criminal-justice policies. In two experiments, we manipulated the racial composition of prisons: When the penal institution was represented as “more Black,” people were more concerned about crime and expressed greater acceptance of punitive policies than when the penal institution was represented as “less Black.” Exposure to extreme racial disparities, then, can lead people to support the very policies that produce those disparities, thus perpetuating a vicious cycle.

Fear of Deportation is not Associated with Medical or Dental Care Use Among Mexican-Origin Farmworkers Served by a Federally-Qualified Health Center—Faith-Based Partnership: An Exploratory Study Daniel F. López-Cevallos, Junghee Lee, William Donlan

Fear of Deportation is not Associated with Medical or Dental Care Use Among Mexican-Origin Farmworkers Served by a Federally-Qualified Health Center—Faith-Based Partnership: An Exploratory Study

Author: Daniel F. López-Cevallos, Junghee Lee, William Donlan
Publisher: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Date: 08/2014

Migrant and seasonal farmworkers face many health risks with limited access to health care and promotion services. This study explored whether fear of deportation (as a barrier), and church attendance (as an enabling factor), were associated with medical and dental care use among Mexican-origin farmworkers. Interviews were conducted with 179 farmworkers who attended mobile services provided by a local federally-qualified health center (FQHC) in partnership with area churches, during the 2007 agricultural season. The majority of respondents (87 %) were afraid of being deported, and many (74 %) attended church. Although about half of participants reported poor/fair physical (49 %) and dental (58 %) health, only 37 % of farmworkers used medical care and 20 % used dental care during the previous year. Fear of deportation was not associated with use of medical or dental care; while church attendance was associated with use of dental care. Findings suggest that despite high prevalence of fear of deportation, support by FQHCs and churches may enable farmworkers to access health care services.

Contribution of Socioeconomic Factors and Health Care Access to the Awareness and Treatment of Diabetes and Hypertension Among Older Mexican Adults Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez, Flávia Cristina Drumond-Andrade, Fernando Riosmena

Contribution of Socioeconomic Factors and Health Care Access to the Awareness and Treatment of Diabetes and Hypertension Among Older Mexican Adults

Author: Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez, Flávia Cristina Drumond-Andrade, Fernando Riosmena
Publisher: Salud Publica Mex
Date: 06/2014

To estimate changes in self-report and treatment of diabetes and hypertension between 2001 and 2012 among Mexican aged 50-80, assessing the contribution of education and health insurance coverage.

Race And Ethnicity - Multimedia

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