Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration

  • C. Matthew Snipp
  • Tomas Jimenez
  • Linda Burton
  • Hazel Markus
  • Douglas Massey
  • Marybeth Mattingly

Leaders: Linda Burton, Tomás Jiménez, Hazel Markus, Douglas Massey, Marybeth Mattingly, C. Matthew Snipp

The CPI has an extensive research program on race, ethnicity, immigration, and poverty. The National Poverty Study, for example, is designed to rigorously compare differences across rural black, deindustrialized, reservation, and other “racialized” poverty forms. The CPI also runs a comprehensive program on Hispanic poverty that explores such topics as the “chilling effect” of anti-immigrant laws on program use, the reasons why, contrary to much speculation, the Hispanic poverty rate has not taken off, and the causes of the so-called Hispanic Health Paradox (see, for example, our Pathways Magazine special report on poverty, inequality, and mobility among Hispanics). And one of the CPI’s most distinguished affiliates, Jennifer Eberhardt (who is on the CPI directorate), is carrying out a groundbreaking big-data analysis of policing and race. We list below a sampling of other CPI projects on race, ethnicity, immigration, and poverty.

Poverty among refugees: The U.S. refugee population faces very high rates of poverty, yet we know very little about the effects of different resettlement programs and approaches. There are efforts afoot to exploit available administrative data and begin to find out what works and what doesn’t.

Arrests, race, and poverty: Why are some arrests resolved informally while others are converted into a criminal record that then has a life-long scarring effect? The process of converting an arrest into a criminal booking may play an important role in generating downstream racial disparities.

Reducing the race gap in test scores: The new Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA) is a rich resource that is providing the most systematic evidence to date on the capacity of school-district policies to reduce the racial gap in test scores.

Poverty and schooling on reservations: Why are test scores and educational outcomes on Native reservations so low (relative to the national average)? In a new project by the noted ethnographer Martin Sánchez-Jankowski, we’ll be learning more about how traditional and formal education are viewed and the ways in which they might be better integrated. 

Race And Ethnicity - CPI Research

Title Author Media
The Buffering Hypothesis: Growing Diversity and Declining Black-White Segregation in America's Cities, Suburbs, and Small Towns? Domenico Parisi, Daniel T. Lichter, Michael C. Taquino

The Buffering Hypothesis: Growing Diversity and Declining Black-White Segregation in America's Cities, Suburbs, and Small Towns?

Author: Domenico Parisi, Daniel T. Lichter, Michael C. Taquino
Publisher:
Date: 03/2015

The conventional wisdom is that racial diversity promotes positive race relations and reduces racial residential segregation between blacks and whites. We use data from the 1990–2010 decennial censuses and 2007–2011 ACS to test this so-called “buffering hypothesis.” We identify cities, suburbs, and small towns that are virtually all white, all black, all Asian, all Hispanic, and everything in between. The results show that the most racially diverse places—those with all four racial groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) present—had the lowest black-white levels of segregation in 2010. Black-white segregation also declined most rapidly in the most racially diverse places and in places that experienced the largest recent increases in diversity. Support for the buffering hypothesis, however, is counterbalanced by continuing high segregation across cities and communities and by rapid white depopulation in the most rapidly diversifying communities. We argue for a new, spatially inclusive perspective on racial residential segregation.

Expression of Anger and Ill Health in Two Cultures: An Examination of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Risk Shinobu Kitayama, Jiyoung Park, Jennifer Morozink Boylan, Yuri Miyamoto, Cynthia S. Levine, Hazel Rose Markus, Mayumi Karasawa, Christopher L. Coe, Norito Kawakami, Gayle D. Love, Carol D. Ryff

Expression of Anger and Ill Health in Two Cultures: An Examination of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Risk

Author: Shinobu Kitayama, Jiyoung Park, Jennifer Morozink Boylan, Yuri Miyamoto, Cynthia S. Levine, Hazel Rose Markus, Mayumi Karasawa, Christopher L. Coe, Norito Kawakami, Gayle D. Love, Carol D. Ryff
Publisher: Psychological Science
Date: 02/2015

Expression of anger is associated with biological health risk (BHR) in Western cultures. However, recent evidence documenting culturally divergent functions of the expression of anger suggests that its link with BHR may be moderated by culture. To test this prediction, we examined large probability samples of both Japanese and Americans using multiple measures of BHR, including pro-inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) and indices of cardiovascular malfunction (systolic blood pressure and ratio of total to HDL cholesterol). We found that the link between greater expression of anger and increased BHR was robust for Americans. As predicted, however, this association was diametrically reversed for Japanese, among whom greater expression of anger predicted reduced BHR. These patterns were unique to the expressive facet of anger and remained after we controlled for age, gender, health status, health behaviors, social status, and reported experience of negative emotions. Implications for sociocultural modulation of bio-physiological responses are discussed.

The Promise of Early Interventions for Improving Socioeconomic Outcomes of Black Men Gregory Acs, Steven Martin

The Promise of Early Interventions for Improving Socioeconomic Outcomes of Black Men

Author: Gregory Acs, Steven Martin
Publisher: The Urban Institute
Date: 02/2015

This brief uses the Social Genome Model to assess the potential impact of various childhood and adolescent interventions on long-term outcomes for black men. In particular, we see that increasing parental emotional support and cognitive stimulation during early childhood and raising reading ability levels in mid-childhood have the greatest impact on later life educational attainment and income. The overall effects of successful interventions are modest for the entire population of black men but are somewhat larger for individuals that would be directly affected by the interventions. Our findings suggest that making substantial progress in improving the outcomes of black men will likely require many different interventions that reinforce one another throughout the life course.

Not Enough Work: Access to Full-Time Jobs with Decent Pay and Benefits Varies by Race/Ethnicity and Place of Residence Marybeth J. Mattingly, Justin R. Young

Not Enough Work: Access to Full-Time Jobs with Decent Pay and Benefits Varies by Race/Ethnicity and Place of Residence

Author: Marybeth J. Mattingly, Justin R. Young
Publisher: National Agricultural & Rural Development Policy Center
Date: 12/2014

In this brief, we consider differences across rural and urban America in each of these measures, given the very different economic conditions that prevail in rural America, where higher paying jobs and those with employer-provided health insurance areless common (McLaughlin and Coleman-Jensen 2008), nonstandard work is more ubiquitous (McCrate 2011), and the best-educated and young often move away (Carr and Kefalas 2010: Hollowing Out the Middle). Further, we break down these differences by both race and gender, as prior research suggests racial-ethnic differences in underemployment (Glauber 2013; Sum and Khatiwada 2010; Young2012), and we know from the literature that different factors mayinfluence women and men’s employment (see, for example, Hollister 2011). We use data from the 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey—the most currently available data for assessing labor force dynamics across the country in this way.

Utopian Visions of Racial Admixture C. Matthew Snipp

Utopian Visions of Racial Admixture

Author: C. Matthew Snipp
Publisher:
Date: 08/2014

Race And Ethnicity - CPI Affiliates

Susan Olzak Professor of Sociology Stanford University
Suzanne Model Professor University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Teresa D. LaFro... Professor of Education; Professor of Counseling Psychology Stanford University
Thomas J. Espenshade Professor of Sociology; Faculty Associate, Office of Population Research Princeton University
Victor Nee Goldwin Smith Professor; Director of the Center for the Study of Economy and Society Cornell University

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Race And Ethnicity - Other Research

Title Author Media
Can We Measure Immigrants' Legal Status? Lessons from Two U.S. Surveys James D. Bachmeier, Jennifer Van Hook, Frank D. Bean

Can We Measure Immigrants' Legal Status? Lessons from Two U.S. Surveys

Author: James D. Bachmeier, Jennifer Van Hook, Frank D. Bean
Publisher: International Migration Review
Date: 03/2014

This research note examines response and allocation rates for legal status questions asked in publicly available U.S. surveys to address worries that the legal status of immigrants cannot be reliably measured. Contrary to such notions, we find that immigrants' non-response rates to questions about legal status are typically not higher than non-response rates to other immigration-related questions, such as country of birth and year of immigration. Further exploration of two particular surveys – the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LAFANS) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) – reveals that these data sources produce profiles of the unauthorized immigrant population that compare favorably to independently estimated profiles. We also find in the case of the SIPP that the introduction of legal status questions does not appear to have an appreciable “chilling effect” on the subsequent survey participation of unauthorized immigrant respondents. Based on the results, we conclude that future data collection efforts should include questions about legal status to (1) improve models of immigrant incorporation; and (2) better position assimilation research to inform policy discussions.

"Caught Up:” How Urban Violence and Peer Ties Contribute to High School Non-Completion Maria G. Rendón

"Caught Up:” How Urban Violence and Peer Ties Contribute to High School Non-Completion

Author: Maria G. Rendón
Publisher: Social Problems
Date: 02/2014

While research shows growing up in urban neighborhoods increases the likelihood of not completing high school, it remains unclear what mechanism facilitates this process and why some youth are more vulnerable than others. This study addresses this gap by drawing on interviews with male, Latino high school graduates and noncompleters in Los Angeles. Interviews reveal urban violence is the most salient feature of urban neighborhoods and consequential for school completion. In an effort to avoid victimization male youth exposed to urban violence draw on male peer ties for protection. Inherent in these social ties, as in other forms of social capital, are expectations and obligations. I find that an orientation that privileges these expectations and obligations—and not specifically an anti-school orientation—gets male youth “caught up” in behavior counterproductive to school completion, like being truant with peers and getting expelled for “backing them” in a fight. I find not all urban youth adopt this orientation because youth are differentially exposed to the neighborhood. Family and school institutional factors limit some youth's time in the neighborhood, buffering them from urban violence. These youth then bypass the opportunity and need to draw on male peer ties for protection. Not having to employ these “strategies of action,” they avoid getting “caught up” and experience higher chances to graduate. This study argues that to understand the cultural orientation that guides behavior that contributes to school noncompletion requires accounting for how the threat of violence punctuates and organizes the daily lives of male urban youth.

Medical Mistrust, Perceived Discrimination, and Satisfaction With Health Care Among Young-Adult Rural Latinos Daniel F. López-Cevallos, S. Marie Harvey, Jocelyn T. Warren

Medical Mistrust, Perceived Discrimination, and Satisfaction With Health Care Among Young-Adult Rural Latinos

Author: Daniel F. López-Cevallos, S. Marie Harvey, Jocelyn T. Warren
Publisher: The Journal of Rural Health
Date: 02/2014

Little research has analyzed mistrust and discrimination influencing receipt of health care services among Latinos, particularly those living in rural areas. This study examined the associations between medical mistrust, perceived discrimination, and satisfaction with health care among young-adult rural Latinos.

Residential Hierarchy in Los Angeles: An Examination of Ethnic and Documentation Status Differences David A. Cort, Ken-Hou Lin, Gabriela Stevenson

Residential Hierarchy in Los Angeles: An Examination of Ethnic and Documentation Status Differences

Author: David A. Cort, Ken-Hou Lin, Gabriela Stevenson
Publisher: Social Science Research
Date: 01/2014

Longitudinal event history data from two waves of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey are used to explore racial, ethnic, and documentation status differences in access to desirable neighborhoods. We first find that contrary to recent findings, undocumented Latinos do not replace blacks at the bottom of the locational attainment hierarchy. Whites continue to end up in neighborhoods that are less poor and whiter than minority groups, while all minorities, including undocumented Latinos, end up in neighborhoods that are of similar quality. Second, the effects of socioeconomic status for undocumented Latinos are either similar to or weaker than disadvantaged blacks. These findings suggest that living in less desirable neighborhoods is a fate disproportionately borne by non-white Los Angeles residents and that in some limited ways, the penalty attached to being undocumented Latino might actually be greater than the penalty attached to being black.

Are Latino Immigrants a Burden to Safety Net Services in Non-Traditional Immigrant States? Lessons from Oregon Daniel López-Cevallos

Are Latino Immigrants a Burden to Safety Net Services in Non-Traditional Immigrant States? Lessons from Oregon

Author: Daniel López-Cevallos
Publisher: American Journal of Public Health
Date: 12/2013

The significant growth of the Latino population in the midst of an economic recession has invigorated anti-Latino, anti-immigrant sentiments in many US states. One common misconception is that Latino immigrants are a burden to safety net services. This may be particularly true in nontraditional immigrant states that have not historically served Latino immigrants. Oregon data suggest that despite a higher prevalence of poverty, use of safety net services among Latino immigrants in Oregon is lower than that among non-Latino Whites. Immigration status, costs, lack of insurance coverage, and discrimination are among the reasons for this group’s limited use of services. Nevertheless, policies designed to strengthen community and institutional support for Latino immigrant families should be considered in the context of current health care and immigration reform efforts.

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