Discrimination and Poverty

  • Shelley Correll
  • Cecilia Ridgeway
  • David Pedulla

Leaders: Shelley Correll, David Pedulla, Cecilia Ridgeway 

The Poverty and Discrimination RG is charged with developing a regularized protocol for measuring the amount and extent of discrimination in labor and housing markets. It is increasingly clear that labor market discrimination, far from withering away, remains very prominent for many statuses and in many types of markets. However, because this research tradition is based on “one-off” audit studies and laboratory experiments, it is not possible to compare across studies and assess which types of discrimination are the most important or the most resistant to change. There is accordingly a need to build a standardized protocol for monitoring trends in discrimination across the various types of discrimination in play (e.g., poverty status, employment status, homelessness, economic background, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, incarceration status, citizenship, religion, disability). The twofold objective of this protocol is to make it possible to assess which types of discrimination are especially prominent and which types are growing weaker or stronger over time.

 

Discrimination - CPI Research

Title Author Media
Men Set Their Own Cites High: Gender and Self-Citation Across Fields and Over Time Molly M. King, Carl T. Bergstrom, Shelley J. Correll, Jennifer Jacquet, Jevin D. West

Men Set Their Own Cites High: Gender and Self-Citation Across Fields and Over Time

Author: Molly M. King, Carl T. Bergstrom, Shelley J. Correll, Jennifer Jacquet, Jevin D. West
Publisher:
Date: 06/2016

How common is self-citation in scholarly publication and does the practice vary by gender? Using novel methods and a dataset of 1.5 million research papers in the scholarly database JSTOR published between 1779-2011, we find that nearly 10% of references are self-citations by a paper's authors. We further find that over the years between 1779-2011, men cite their own papers 56% more than women do. In the last two decades of our data, men self-cite 70% more than women. Women are also more than ten percentage points more likely than men to not cite their own previous work at all. Despite increased representation of women in academia, this gender gap in self-citation rates has remained stable over the last 50 years. We break down self-citation patterns by academic field and number of authors, and comment on potential mechanisms behind these observations. These findings have important implications for scholarly visibility and likely consequences for academic careers.

Women in Academic Medicine: Measuring Stereotype Threat Among Junior Faculty M. Fassiotto, E.O. Hamel, M. Ku, S. Correll, D. Grewal, P. Lavori, V.J. Periyakoil, A. Reiss, C. Sandborg, G. Walton, M. Winkleby, H. Valantine

Women in Academic Medicine: Measuring Stereotype Threat Among Junior Faculty

Author: M. Fassiotto, E.O. Hamel, M. Ku, S. Correll, D. Grewal, P. Lavori, V.J. Periyakoil, A. Reiss, C. Sandborg, G. Walton, M. Winkleby, H. Valantine
Publisher: Journal of Women’s Health
Date: 03/2016

BACKGROUND:

Gender stereotypes in science impede supportive environments for women. Research suggests that women's perceptions of these environments are influenced by stereotype threat (ST): anxiety faced in situations where one may be evaluated using negative stereotypes. This study developed and tested ST metrics for first time use with junior faculty in academic medicine.

METHODS:

Under a 2012 National Institutes of Health Pathfinder Award, Stanford School of Medicine's Office of Diversity and Leadership, working with experienced clinicians, social scientists, and epidemiologists, developed and administered ST measures to a representative group of junior faculty.

RESULTS:

174 School of Medicine junior faculty were recruited (62% women, 38% men; 75% assistant professors, 25% instructors; 50% white, 40% Asian, 10% underrepresented minority). Women reported greater susceptibility to ST than did men across all items including ST vulnerability (p < 0.001); rejection sensitivity (p = 0.001); gender identification (p < 0.001); perceptions of relative potential (p = 0.048); and, sense of belonging (p = 0.049). Results of career-related consequences of ST were more nuanced. Compared with men, women reported lower beliefs in advancement (p = 0.021); however, they had similar career interest and identification, felt just as connected to colleagues, and were equally likely to pursue careers outside academia (all p > 0.42).

CONCLUSIONS:

Innovative ST metrics can provide a more complete picture of academic medical center environments. While junior women faculty are susceptible to ST, they may not yet experience all of its consequences in their early careers. As such, ST metrics offer a tool for evaluating institutional initiatives to increase supportive environments for women in academic medicine.

Redesigning, Redefining Work Shelley J. Correll, Erin L. Kelly, Lindsey Trimble O’Connor, Joan C. Williams

Redesigning, Redefining Work

Author: Shelley J. Correll, Erin L. Kelly, Lindsey Trimble O’Connor, Joan C. Williams
Publisher: Work and Occupations
Date: 02/2014

The demands of today’s workplace—long hours, constant availability, self-sacrificial dedication—do not match the needs of today’s workforce, where workers struggle to reconcile competing caregiving and workplace demands. This mismatch has negative consequences for gender equality and workers’ health. Here, the authors put forth a call to action: to redesign work to better meet the needs of today’s workforce and to redefine successful work. The authors propose two avenues for future research to achieve these goals: research that (a) builds a more rigorous business case for work redesign/redefinition and (b) exposes the underlying gender and class dynamics of current work arrangements.

Redesigning, Redefining Work Shelley J. Correll, Erin L. Kelly, Lindsey Trimble O’Connor, Joan C. Williams

Redesigning, Redefining Work

Author: Shelley J. Correll, Erin L. Kelly, Lindsey Trimble O’Connor, Joan C. Williams
Publisher:
Date: 02/2014

The demands of today’s workplace—long hours, constant availability, selfsacrificial dedication—do not match the needs of today’s workforce, where workers struggle to reconcile competing caregiving and workplace demands. This mismatch has negative consequences for gender equality and workers’ health. Here, the authors put forth a call to action: to redesign work to better meet the needs of today’s workforce and to redefine successful work. The authors propose two avenues for future research to achieve these goals: research that (a) builds a more rigorous business case for work redesign/redefinition and (b) exposes the underlying gender and class dynamics of current work arrangements.

Why Status Matters for Inequality Cecilia L. Ridgeway

Why Status Matters for Inequality

Author: Cecilia L. Ridgeway
Publisher:
Date: 02/2014

To understand the mechanisms behind social inequality, this address argues that we need to more thoroughly incorporate the effects of status—inequality based on differences in esteem and respect—alongside those based on resources and power. As a micro motive for behavior, status is as significant as money and power. At a macro level, status stabilizes resource and power inequality by transforming it into cultural status beliefs about group differences regarding who is “better” (esteemed and competent). But cultural status beliefs about which groups are “better” constitute group differences as independent dimensions of inequality that generate material advantages due to group membership itself. Acting through micro-level social relations in workplaces, schools, and elsewhere, status beliefs bias evaluations of competence and suitability for authority, bias associational preferences, and evoke resistance to status challenges from low-status group members. These effects accumulate to direct members of higher status groups toward positions of resources and power while holding back lower status group members. Through these processes, status writes group differences such as gender, race, and class-based life style into organizational structures of resources and power, creating durable inequality. Status is thus a central mechanism behind durable patterns of inequality based on social differences.

Discrimination - CPI Affiliates

Cecilia Ridgeway Discrimination Research Group Leader; Lucie Stern Professor in the Social Sciences Stanford University
David Pedulla Discrimination Research Group Leader; Assistant Professor of Sociology Stanford University
Shelley Correll Discrimination Research Group Leader; Barbara D. Finberg Director of Michelle R. Clayman Institute for Research on Gender; Professor of Sociology Stanford University
Bart Landry Professor of Sociology University of Maryland
Claudia Goldin Henry Lee Professor of Economics; Director, Development of the American Economy Program, NBER Harvard University

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Discrimination - Other Research

Title Author Media
The Neighborhood Context of Latino Threat Matthew Hall, Maria Krysan

The Neighborhood Context of Latino Threat

Author: Matthew Hall, Maria Krysan
Publisher: Sociology of Race and Ethnicity
Date: 04/2016

In recent years, the size of the Latino immigrant population has swelled in communities throughout the United States. For decades, social scientists have studied how social context, particularly a minority group’s relative size, affects the sentiments of the dominant group. Using a random sample survey of five communities in suburban Chicago, the authors examine the impact of Latino population concentration on native-born white residents’ subjective perceptions of threat from Latino immigrants at two micro-level geographies: the immediate block and the surrounding blocks. After controlling for Latino population size in surrounding blocks, percentage Latino in the immediate block does not influence perceptions of threat from Latino immigrants. The effect of surrounding blocks’ population size is consistent with group threat theories for white residents: the larger the Latino population, the greater the perceived threat.

A Most Egalitarian Profession: Pharmacy and the Evolution of a Family-Friendly Occupation Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz

A Most Egalitarian Profession: Pharmacy and the Evolution of a Family-Friendly Occupation

Author: Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz
Publisher: Journal of Labor Economics
Date: 04/2016

Pharmacy today is a highly remunerated female-majority profession with a small gender earnings gap and low earnings dispersion. Using extensive surveys of pharmacists, as well as the US Census, American Community Surveys, and Current Population Surveys, we explore the gender earnings gap, penalty to part-time work, demographics of pharmacists relative to other college graduates, and evolution of the profession during the last half-century. Technological changes increasing substitutability among pharmacists, growth of pharmacy employment in retail chains and hospitals, and related decline of independent pharmacies reduced the penalty to part-time work and contribute to the narrow gender earnings gap in pharmacy.

The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations Francine D. Blau, Lawrence M. Kahn

The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations

Author: Francine D. Blau, Lawrence M. Kahn
Publisher: Journal of Economic Literature
Date: 01/2016

Using PSID microdata over the 1980-2010, we provide new empirical evidence on the extent of and trends in the gender wage gap, which declined considerably over this period. By 2010, conventional human capital variables taken together explained little of the gender wage gap, while gender differences in occupation and industry continued to be important. Moreover, the gender pay gap declined much more slowly at the top of the wage distribution that at the middle or the bottom and by 2010 was noticeably higher at the top. We then survey the literature to identify what has been learned about the explanations for the gap. We conclude that many of the traditional explanations continue to have salience. Although human capital factors are now relatively unimportant in the aggregate, women’s work force interruptions and shorter hours remain significant in high skilled occupations, possibly due to compensating differentials. Gender differences in occupations and industries, as well as differences in gender roles and the gender division of labor remain important, and research based on experimental evidence strongly suggests that discrimination cannot be discounted. Psychological attributes or noncognitive skills comprise one of the newer explanations for gender differences in outcomes. Our effort to assess the quantitative evidence on the importance of these factors suggests that they account for a small to moderate portion of the gender pay gap, considerably smaller than say occupation and industry effects, though they appear to modestly contribute to these differences.

Foreign-Born Latinos Living in Rural Areas are More Likely to Experience Health Care Discrimination: Results from Proyecto de Salud para Latinos Daniel F. López-Cevallos, S. Marie Harvey

Foreign-Born Latinos Living in Rural Areas are More Likely to Experience Health Care Discrimination: Results from Proyecto de Salud para Latinos

Author: Daniel F. López-Cevallos, S. Marie Harvey
Publisher: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Date: 09/2015

Health care discrimination is increasingly considered a significant barrier to accessing health services among minority populations, including Latinos. However, little is known about the role of immigration status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between immigration status and perceived health care discrimination among Latinos living in rural areas. Interviews were conducted among 349 young-adult Latinos (ages 18 to 25) living in rural Oregon, as part of Proyecto de Salud para Latinos. Over a third of participants experienced health care discrimination (39.5 %). Discrimination was higher among foreign-born (44.9 %) rather than US-born Latinos (31.9 %). Multivariate results showed that foreign-born Latinos were significantly more likely to experience health care discrimination, even after controlling for other relevant factors (OR = 2.10, 95 % CI 1.16–3.82). This study provides evidence that health care discrimination is prevalent among young-adult Latinos living in rural areas, particularly the foreign-born. Effective approaches towards reducing discrimination in health care settings should take into consideration the need to reform our broken immigration system.

Leave policies in challenging times: what have we learned? What lies ahead? Janet Gornick

Leave policies in challenging times: what have we learned? What lies ahead?

Author: Janet Gornick
Publisher: Community, Work & Family
Date: 05/2015

This article reflects on the studies included in this special issue on leave policies during challenging economic times. It highlights three major conclusions: (1) the regime-type framework remains illuminating; (2) the recent period is characterized by resilience of leave provisions; and (3) persistent gender disparities in leave-taking continue to shape policy debates. Three recommendations are made for future lines of work: (1) adopt a life course perspective; (2) reassess the growing emphasis on instrumental justifications for policy provision; and (3) continue to assess the possibility of unintended consequences, in particular the potential for harmful effects on women’s employment outcomes.