Leaders: Mark Duggan, Hilary Hoynes, Karen Jusko
The Safety Net RG is devoted to monitoring changes in government transfers and anti-poverty programs and assessing whether they are meeting the needs of the poor. The U.S. safety net is undergoing such changes as (a) an ongoing decline in TANF cash benefits, (b) rapid increases in spending on EITC, Medicaid, Disability Insurance, Unemployment Insurance, and SNAP, and (c) a dramatic shift toward spending that favors the “working poor” over the more destitute. The CPI affiliates working within this research group are monitoring these changes, examining their implications for poverty, assessing the effectiveness of key government and nongovernment programs in reducing poverty, and modeling the costs and benefits of possible changes in policy and programs. We’ve provided a sampling here of some of this ongoing research.
Poverty Relief Project: With Kate Weisshaar, Karen Jusko uses the poverty relief ratio to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-poverty programs over time, across states, and across countries. Which state is the least effective in fighting poverty? Has the U.S. become more or less effective over time? These and other questions are answered in our latest State of the Union reports.
Long-run effects of SNAP: Have we underestimated the returns to SNAP by ignoring the long-run effects on children exposed to it in their early childhood? It’s now possible to find out.
California Welfare Laboratory: The poverty rate in California, when measured with the Supplemental Poverty Measure, is the highest in the country. What can be done to bring that rate down? The mission of the California Welfare Laboratory is to make research on California’s welfare programs accessible to all and thus facilitate an informed discussion of what is working and what needs to be improved.
Differential EITC effects: It is often argued that early interventions have especially high payoffs. Are the returns to the EITC indeed larger when it goes to parents with young children?
Disability and poverty: Does the federal government’s disability program reduce labor supply? Although it’s long been difficult to identify a causal effect, Mark Duggan has now found a way.
The effects of TANF: The TANF program is very decentralized and thus takes on dramatically different forms. How can we exploit that variability to find out what’s working?
Safety Net - CPI Research
|The Social Safety Net and the Great Recession||Robert A. Moffitt||
The Social Safety Net and the Great RecessionAuthor: Robert A. Moffitt
As the economic downturn wears on, the debate about U.S. spending on the safety net has become increasingly rancorous. Indeed, former presidential candidate Newt Gingrich famously referred to Barack Obama as "the food stamp president" in the early-2012 campaign trail. The purpose of this recession brief is to step back from the rancor and describe in straightforward fashion how spending on the safety net has responded to the Great Recession.
|Health, Mental Health, and the Great Recession||Sarah Burgard||
Health, Mental Health, and the Great RecessionAuthor: Sarah Burgard
Publisher: Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality
Are we experiencing a "health recession"? While many think the impacts of the Great Recession are mostly confined to the labor and housing markets, the recession may also have taken a toll on health and wellbeing. In assessing such health impacts, it's important to distinguish between direct and indirect effects, the former pertaining to the health of those who are directly impacted by recession-induced negative events, such as unemployment, and the latter pertaining to the more diffuse behavioral changes that a recession may bring about among the general population. For example, the recession might reduce the amount of discretionary driving (to save on fuel costs), with the indirect result being fewer accidents.
|The Labor Force and the Great Recession||Michael Hout, Erin Cumberworth||
The Labor Force and the Great RecessionAuthor: Michael Hout, Erin Cumberworth
The Great Recession and the slow recovery since have been the longest economic slump in seventy years. It affected vulnerable populations more than others. In this brief, our aim is to put this disaster into historical context, looking first at the overall state of the labor market and then at how the economic harm has been distributed across the population by gender, level of education, and race and ethnicity.
|Older Workers, Retirement, and the Great Recession||Richard W. Johnson||
Older Workers, Retirement, and the Great RecessionAuthor: Richard W. Johnson
The workforce in the United States is becoming ever older. Because the number of older workers is growing, and because work is increasingly important to older adults, it is worth examining how older workers are faring in the Great Recession. This brief reports on employment, unemployment, and labor force participation among older workers since 2007, just before the labor market collapsed. It focuses on workers age 62 or older, nearly all of whom qualify for Social Security retirement benefits, an important safety net if laid off. However, it also examines outcomes for workers as young as age 50, whom employers appear somewhat reluctant to hire.
|Partisan Representation of the Poor: Electoral Geography, Strategic Mobilization, and Implications for Voter Turnout||Karen Long Jusko||
Partisan Representation of the Poor: Electoral Geography, Strategic Mobilization, and Implications for Voter TurnoutAuthor: Karen Long Jusko
How do electoral rules affect the poor? When do parties have an incentive to stand as the party of low-income citizens? When will parties mobilize the electoral support of low-income voters? This discussion presents evidence that rates of turnout among,low-income citizens reflect legislators’ and parties’ electoral incentives to be responsive to the poor, and that these electoral incentives are determined by electoral geography – the joint geographic distribution of legislative seats and low-income voters across electoral districts. Further, this discussion demonstrates that under SMD electoral rules, low-income voters are more likely to vote in those electoral districts in which they are likely to be pivotal. By presenting a strategic mobilization account of voter turnout, this discussion breaks with current accounts of voter turnout that emphasize facilitative and motivational individual and system-level factors. Instead, this discussion argues that low-income voters’ turnout decisions, in fact, reflect parties’ electoral incentives to cultivate and mobilize a low-income constituency.
Safety Net - CPI Affiliates
|Kathleen Gerson||Professor of Sociology||New York University|
|Kazuo Yamaguchi||Hanna Holborn Gray Professor||University of Chicago|
|Magnus Nermo||Assistant Professor of Sociology||Stockholm University|
|Margarita Estev...||Paul Sack Associate Professor of Political Economy||Harvard University|
|Markus Gangl||Professor for Methods of Empirical Social Research||University of Mannheim|
Safety Net - Other Research
|From Mill Town to Board Room: The Rise of Women’s Paid Labor||Dora L. Costa||
From Mill Town to Board Room: The Rise of Women’s Paid LaborAuthor: Dora L. Costa
Publisher: Journal of Economic Perspectives
|Securing Prosperity||Paul Osterman||
Securing ProsperityAuthor: Paul Osterman
Publisher: Princeton University Press
|Governmental Constraints and Labor Market Mobility||Abbott, A. and D.R. Smith||
Governmental Constraints and Labor Market MobilityAuthor: Abbott, A. and D.R. Smith
|Bad jobs in America : Standard and nonstandard employment relations and job quality in the United States||Arne L. Kalleberg, Barbara F. Reskin and Ken...||
Bad jobs in America : Standard and nonstandard employment relations and job quality in the United StatesAuthor: Arne L. Kalleberg, Barbara F. Reskin and Ken...
Publisher: American Sociological Review
|The Time Divide: Work, Family, and Gender Inequality||Jerry A. Jacobs and Kathleen Gerson||
The Time Divide: Work, Family, and Gender InequalityAuthor: Jerry A. Jacobs and Kathleen Gerson
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Safety Net - Multimedia
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