Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration

  • C. Matthew Snipp
  • Tomas Jimenez
  • Linda Burton
  • Hazel Markus
  • Douglas Massey
  • Marybeth Mattingly

Leaders: Linda Burton, Tomás Jiménez, Hazel Markus, Douglas Massey, Marybeth Mattingly, C. Matthew Snipp

The CPI has an extensive research program on race, ethnicity, immigration, and poverty. The National Poverty Study, for example, is designed to rigorously compare differences across rural black, deindustrialized, reservation, and other “racialized” poverty forms. The CPI also runs a comprehensive program on Hispanic poverty that explores such topics as the “chilling effect” of anti-immigrant laws on program use, the reasons why, contrary to much speculation, the Hispanic poverty rate has not taken off, and the causes of the so-called Hispanic Health Paradox (see, for example, our Pathways Magazine special report on poverty, inequality, and mobility among Hispanics). And one of the CPI’s most distinguished affiliates, Jennifer Eberhardt (who is on the CPI directorate), is carrying out a groundbreaking big-data analysis of policing and race. We list below a sampling of other CPI projects on race, ethnicity, immigration, and poverty.

Poverty among refugees: The U.S. refugee population faces very high rates of poverty, yet we know very little about the effects of different resettlement programs and approaches. There are efforts afoot to exploit available administrative data and begin to find out what works and what doesn’t.

Arrests, race, and poverty: Why are some arrests resolved informally while others are converted into a criminal record that then has a life-long scarring effect? The process of converting an arrest into a criminal booking may play an important role in generating downstream racial disparities.

Reducing the race gap in test scores: The new Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA) is a rich resource that is providing the most systematic evidence to date on the capacity of school-district policies to reduce the racial gap in test scores.

Poverty and schooling on reservations: Why are test scores and educational outcomes on Native reservations so low (relative to the national average)? In a new project by the noted ethnographer Martin Sánchez-Jankowski, we’ll be learning more about how traditional and formal education are viewed and the ways in which they might be better integrated. 

Race And Ethnicity - CPI Research

Title Author Media
State of the Union 2017: Poverty Linda M. Burton, Marybeth Mattingly, Juan Pedroza, Whitney Welsh

State of the Union 2017: Poverty

Author: Linda M. Burton, Marybeth Mattingly, Juan Pedroza, Whitney Welsh
Publisher: Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality
Date: 06/2017

Though some gaps have narrowed, there remain substantial racial-ethnic differences in poverty, with blacks and Native Americans continuing to experience the highest poverty rates, Hispanics following with slightly lower rates, and whites and Asians experiencing the lowest poverty rates. The sizes of these racial-ethnic gaps often differ substantially by region, with black women in the rural South, for example, facing poverty rates as high as 37 percent.

State of the Union 2017: Employment Michael Hout

State of the Union 2017: Employment

Author: Michael Hout
Publisher: Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality
Date: 06/2017

Full recovery from the job losses of the Great Recession eluded African-American men even as the rest of the population approached full employment. Job loss can also unsettle those who haven’t lost their jobs. 1 in 9 African-Americans and 1 in 6 Hispanic Americans fear a job loss within one year, while just 1 in 18 whites do.

Polluting Black Space Bonam, Courtney M., Bergsieker, Hilary B., Eberhardt, Jennifer L.

Polluting Black Space

Author: Bonam, Courtney M., Bergsieker, Hilary B., Eberhardt, Jennifer L.
Publisher: American Psychological Association
Date: 11/2016

Social psychologists have long demonstrated that people are stereotyped on the basis of race. Researchers have conducted extensive experimental studies on the negative stereotypes associated with Black Americans in particular. Across 4 studies, we demonstrate that the physical spaces associated with Black Americans are also subject to negative racial stereotypes. Such spaces, for example, are perceived as impoverished, crime-ridden, and dirty (Study 1). Moreover, these space-focused stereotypes can powerfully influence how connected people feel to a space (Studies 2a, 2b, and 3), how they evaluate that space (Studies 2a and 2b), and how they protect that space from harm (Study 3). Indeed, processes related to space-focused stereotypes may contribute to social problems across a range of domains—from racial disparities in wealth to the overexposure of Blacks to environmental pollution. Together, the present studies broaden the scope of traditional stereotyping research and highlight promising new directions.

Police Violence and Citizen Crime Reporting in the Black Community Matthew Desmond, Andrew V. Papachristos, David S. Kirk

Police Violence and Citizen Crime Reporting in the Black Community

Author: Matthew Desmond, Andrew V. Papachristos, David S. Kirk
Publisher: American Sociological Review
Date: 09/2016

High-profile cases of police violence—disproportionately experienced by black men—may present a serious threat to public safety if they lower citizen crime reporting. Using an interrupted time series design, this study analyzes how one of Milwaukee’s most publicized cases of police violence against an unarmed black man, the beating of Frank Jude, affected police-related 911 calls. Controlling for crime, prior call patterns, and several neighborhood characteristics, we find that residents of Milwaukee’s neighborhoods, especially residents of black neighborhoods, were far less likely to report crime after Jude’s beating was broadcast. The effect lasted for over a year and resulted in a total net loss of approximately 22,200 calls for service. Other local and national cases of police violence against unarmed black men also had a significant impact on citizen crime reporting in Milwaukee. Police misconduct can powerfully suppress one of the most basic forms of civic engagement: calling 911 for matters of personal and public safety.

Emerging Patterns of Hispanic Residential Segregation: Lessons from Rural and Small-Town America Daniel T. Lichter, Domenico Parisi, Michael C. Taquino

Emerging Patterns of Hispanic Residential Segregation: Lessons from Rural and Small-Town America

Author: Daniel T. Lichter, Domenico Parisi, Michael C. Taquino
Publisher: Rural Sociology
Date: 05/2016

The past two decades have ushered in a period of widespread spatial diffusion of Hispanics well beyond traditional metropolitan gateways. This article examines emerging patterns of racial and ethnic residential segregation in new Hispanic destinations over the 1990–2010 period, linking county, place, and block data from the 1990, 2000, and 2010 decennial censuses. Our multiscalar analyses of segregation are framed by classical models of immigrant assimilation and alternative models of place stratification. We ask whether Hispanics are integrating spatially with the native population and whether recent demographic and economic processes have eroded or perpetuated racial boundaries in nonmetropolitan areas. We show that Hispanic residential segregation from whites is often exceptionally high and declining slowly in rural counties and communities. New Hispanic destinations, on average, have higher Hispanic segregation levels than established gateway communities. The results also highlight microscale segregation patterns within rural places and in the open countryside (i.e., outside places), a result that is consistent with emerging patterns of “white flight.” Observed estimates of Hispanic-white segregation across fast-growing nonmetropolitan counties often hide substantial heterogeneity in residential segregation. Divergent patterns of rural segregation reflect local-area differences in population dynamics, economic inequality, and the county employment base (using Economic Research Service functional specialization codes). Illustrative maps of Hispanic boom counties highlight spatially uneven patterns of racial diversity. They also provide an empirical basis for our multivariate analyses, which show that divergent patterns of local-area segregation often reflect spatial variation in employment across different industrial sectors.

race and ethnicity - CPI Affiliates

Kwame Anthony Appiah Professor of Philosophy and Law, New York University; Laurance S. Rockefeller University Professor of Philosophy and the University Center for Human Values Emeritus, Princeton University
New York University
Loic Wacquant's picture Loic Wacquant Professor of Sociology; Research Associate, Earl Warren Legal Institute; Researcher, Centre de sociologie europeenne (Paris)
University of California, Berkeley
Marta Tienda's picture Marta Tienda Professor, Maurice P. During '22 Professor in Demographic Studies; Professor of Sociology and Public Affairs; Director, Program in Latino Studies
Princeton University
Nancy Denton's picture Nancy Denton Chair, Department of Sociology; Director, Developmental Core, CSDA; Professor, School of Public Policy, University at Albany, SUNY Professor, Sociology, University at Albany, State University of New York
State University of New York - University at Albany
Noah Lewin-Epstein's picture Noah Lewin-Epstein Professor of Sociology; Dean of the Faculty of Social Science
Tel Aviv University

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Race And Ethnicity - Other Research

Title Author Media
Second-Generation Decline or Advantage? Latino Assimilation in the Aftermath of the Great Recession Van C. Tran, Nicol M. Valdez

Second-Generation Decline or Advantage? Latino Assimilation in the Aftermath of the Great Recession

Author: Van C. Tran, Nicol M. Valdez
Publisher: International Migration Review
Date: 08/2015

This article addresses the debate on second-generation advantage and decline among Latinos by providing a post-recession snapshot based on geocoded data from the Current Population Survey (2008–2012). It reports three findings. First, second-generation Mexicans and Puerto Ricans are at a disadvantage, whereas other Latinos have achieved parity with native majority peers. Second, second-generation Latinos report significant progress compared to their parents and there is no evidence of a second-generation decline. Third, there is no difference in outcomes among second-generation Mexicans by immigrant destination type. Overall, these analyses yield an optimistic assessment of second-generation progress, while noting potential stagnation among third- and higher-generation Mexicans.

Negative Acculturation and Nothing More? Cumulative Disadvantage and Mortality during the Immigrant Adaptation Process among Latinos in the United States Fernando Riosmena, Bethany G. Everett, Richard G. Rogers, Jeff A. Dennis

Negative Acculturation and Nothing More? Cumulative Disadvantage and Mortality during the Immigrant Adaptation Process among Latinos in the United States

Author: Fernando Riosmena, Bethany G. Everett, Richard G. Rogers, Jeff A. Dennis
Publisher: International Migration Review
Date: 06/2015

Foreign- and U.S.-born Hispanic health deteriorates with increasing exposure and acculturation to mainstream U.S. society. Because these associations are robust to (static) socioeconomic controls, negative acculturation has become their primary explanation. This overemphasis, however, has neglected important alternative structural explanations. Examining Hispanic mortality using the 1998–2006 U.S. National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality File according to nativity, immigrant adaptation measures, and health behaviors, this study presents indirect but compelling evidence that suggests negative acculturation is not the only or main explanation for this deterioration.

Dynamics of Urban Neighborhood Reciprocity: Latino Peer Ties, Violence and the Navigation of School Failure and Success Maria G. Rendon

Dynamics of Urban Neighborhood Reciprocity: Latino Peer Ties, Violence and the Navigation of School Failure and Success

Author: Maria G. Rendon
Publisher: Routledge
Date: 04/2015
Deportation Discretion: A Measure of Immigrants’ Context of Reception Juan Manuel Pedroza

Deportation Discretion: A Measure of Immigrants’ Context of Reception

Author: Juan Manuel Pedroza
Publisher:
Date: 03/2015

As deportations from the United States rise to unprecedented levels, a nationwide immigration enforcement program (Secure Communities) identifies noncitizens under arrest in county jails. I directly measure how much local contexts differ from each other by observing how restrictively federal immigration law is enforced at the county level. Examining variation in deportation outcomes begins to address the paucity of clear measures to compare contexts of reception across sub-national settings. I define and analyze deportation discretion (i.e., number of noncitizens not deported out of the pool of noncitizens arrested and booked into local jails) to gain insights into county-level contexts of reception. Among noncitizens identified by Secure Communities, the protective effects of being in a county with Hispanic co-ethnics are highest where the Hispanic share is above the national average (but less than a majority of the county’s population) and where Hispanic immigrant segregation from non-Hispanic, US-born whites is either very low or very high. The Hispanic share of a county appears to have a protective effect even in Republican strongholds. The findings suggest Hispanic-dense counties (measured as the Hispanic share and the spatial distribution of Hispanic immigrants, respectively) possess the level of accumulated social capital and political clout to dull the aims of a pervasive deportation apparatus designed to expel record numbers of noncitizens.

Immigration Enforcement and the “Chilling Effect” on Latino Medicaid Enrollment Francisco I. Padraza, Ling Zhu

Immigration Enforcement and the “Chilling Effect” on Latino Medicaid Enrollment

Author: Francisco I. Padraza, Ling Zhu
Publisher:
Date: 01/2015

Is contemporary interior immigration enforcement generating a “chilling effect” on Medicaiduse among Latinos? In the first section we theorize the “chilling effect” as a subclass of “massfeedback effects,” which we expand to include a narrative of contemporary Latino politics. In the second section we introduce the details of Secure Communities and explain how itfits in the broader development of America’s new immigration enforcement regime. The section after that describes our data, measures and methods. In addition to complimenting existing findings on the “chilling effect” of immigration enforcement, we present analyses that show patterns of heterogenous “chilling effects,” both in terms of nativity and immigrantgeneration, and across race/ethnicity and immigration status. The final section summarizes and concludes with thoughts about future research directions.

Race And Ethnicity - Multimedia

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