Safety Net Use

  • Karen Jusko
  • Mark Duggan
  • Hilary Hoynes

Leaders: Mark Duggan, Hilary Hoynes, Karen Jusko

The Safety Net RG is devoted to monitoring changes in government transfers and anti-poverty programs and assessing whether they are meeting the needs of the poor. The U.S. safety net is undergoing such changes as (a) an ongoing decline in TANF cash benefits, (b) rapid increases in spending on EITC, Medicaid, Disability Insurance, Unemployment Insurance, and SNAP, and (c) a dramatic shift toward spending that favors the “working poor” over the more destitute. The CPI affiliates working within this research group are monitoring these changes, examining their implications for poverty, assessing the effectiveness of key government and nongovernment programs in reducing poverty, and modeling the costs and benefits of possible changes in policy and programs. We’ve provided a sampling here of some of this ongoing research.

Poverty Relief Project: With Kate Weisshaar, Karen Jusko uses the poverty relief ratio to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-poverty programs over time, across states, and across countries. Which state is the least effective in fighting poverty? Has the U.S. become more or less effective over time? These and other questions are answered in our latest State of the Union reports.

Long-run effects of SNAP: Have we underestimated the returns to SNAP by ignoring the long-run effects on children exposed to it in their early childhood? It’s now possible to find out.

California Welfare LaboratoryThe poverty rate in California, when measured with the Supplemental Poverty Measure, is the highest in the country. What can be done to bring that rate down? The mission of the California Welfare Laboratory is to make research on California’s welfare programs accessible to all and thus facilitate an informed discussion of what is working and what needs to be improved.

Differential EITC effects: It is often argued that early interventions have especially high payoffs.  Are the returns to the EITC indeed larger when it goes to parents with young children?

Disability and poverty: Does the federal government’s disability program reduce labor supply? Although it’s long been difficult to identify a causal effect, Mark Duggan has now found a way.

The effects of TANF: The TANF program is very decentralized and thus takes on dramatically different forms. How can we exploit that variability to find out what’s working?

Safety Net - CPI Research

Title Author Media
Has the Shift to Managed Care Reduced Medicaid Spending? Evidence from State and Local-Level Mandates Mark Duggan, Tamara Hayford

Has the Shift to Managed Care Reduced Medicaid Spending? Evidence from State and Local-Level Mandates

Author: Mark Duggan, Tamara Hayford
Publisher:
Date: 01/2013

From 1991 to 2009, the fraction of Medicaid recipients enrolled in HMOs and other forms of Medicaid managed care (MMC) increased from 11 percent to 71 percent. This increase was largely driven by state and local mandates that required most Medicaid recipients to enroll in an MMC plan. Theoretically, it is ambiguous whether the shift from fee-for-service into managed care would lead to an increase or a reduction in Medicaid spending. This paper investigates this effect using a data set on state and local level MMC mandates and detailed data from CMS on state Medicaid expenditures. The findings suggest that shifting Medicaid recipients from fee-for-service into MMC did not reduce Medicaid spending in the typical state. If anything, our results suggest that the shift to MMC increased Medicaid spending and that this effect was especially present for risk-based HMOs. However, the effects of the shift to MMC on Medicaid spending varied significantly across states as a function of the generosity of the state’s baseline Medicaid provider reimbursement rates.

Poverty Requires Disaster Relief Michele Dauber

Poverty Requires Disaster Relief

Author: Michele Dauber
Publisher:
Date: 12/2012
Health, Mental Health, and the Great Recession Sarah Burgard

Health, Mental Health, and the Great Recession

Author: Sarah Burgard
Publisher: Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality
Date: 10/2012

Are we experiencing a "health recession"? While many think the impacts of the Great Recession are mostly confined to the labor and housing markets, the recession may also have taken a toll on health and wellbeing. In assessing such health impacts, it's important to distinguish between direct and indirect effects, the former pertaining to the health of those who are directly impacted by recession-induced negative events, such as unemployment, and the latter pertaining to the more diffuse behavioral changes that a recession may bring about among the general population. For example, the recession might reduce the amount of discretionary driving (to save on fuel costs), with the indirect result being fewer accidents.

The Labor Force and the Great Recession Michael Hout, Erin Cumberworth

The Labor Force and the Great Recession

Author: Michael Hout, Erin Cumberworth
Publisher:
Date: 10/2012

The Great Recession and the slow recovery since have been the longest economic slump in seventy years. It affected vulnerable populations more than others. In this brief, our aim is to put this disaster into historical context, looking first at the overall state of the labor market and then at how the economic harm has been distributed across the population by gender, level of education, and race and ethnicity.

Older Workers, Retirement, and the Great Recession Richard W. Johnson

Older Workers, Retirement, and the Great Recession

Author: Richard W. Johnson
Publisher:
Date: 10/2012

The workforce in the United States is becoming ever older. Because the number of older workers is growing, and because work is increasingly important to older adults, it is worth examining how older workers are faring in the Great Recession. This brief reports on employment, unemployment, and labor force participation among older workers since 2007, just before the labor market collapsed. It focuses on workers age 62 or older, nearly all of whom qualify for Social Security retirement benefits, an important safety net if laid off. However, it also examines outcomes for workers as young as age 50, whom employers appear somewhat reluctant to hire.

safety net - CPI Affiliates

Bruce D. Meyer's picture Bruce D. Meyer McCormick Foundation Professor of Public Policy; Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research
University of Chicago
Torben Iversen's picture Torben Iversen Harold Hitchings Burbank Professor of Political Economy; BP Centennial Professor at London School of Business
Harvard University
Daniel Bertaux's picture Daniel Bertaux Member, Centre d'etude des mouvements sociaux, Director of research, Centre national de la recherche scientifique
École des hautes Études en science sociales
Victor Fuchs's picture Victor Fuchs Henry J. Kaiser, Jr. Professor of Economics and of Health Research and Policy (Emeritus)
Stanford University
Yu-Ling Chang Assistant Professor of Social Welfare
University of California, Berkeley

Pages

Safety Net - Other Research

Title Author Media
The Invisible Safety Net: Protecting the Nation's Poor Children and Families Currie, Janet M.

The Invisible Safety Net: Protecting the Nation's Poor Children and Families

Author: Currie, Janet M.
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Date: 11/2008
Positional Externalities Cause Large and Preventable Welfare Losses Frank, Robert H.

Positional Externalities Cause Large and Preventable Welfare Losses

Author: Frank, Robert H.
Publisher: American Economic Review
Date: 01/2005
Flexible Firms and Labor Market Segmentation: Effects of Workplace Restructuring on Jobs and Workers Arne. L. Kalleberg

Flexible Firms and Labor Market Segmentation: Effects of Workplace Restructuring on Jobs and Workers

Author: Arne. L. Kalleberg
Publisher: Work and Occupations
Date: 05/2003
From Mill Town to Board Room: The Rise of Women’s Paid Labor Dora L. Costa

From Mill Town to Board Room: The Rise of Women’s Paid Labor

Author: Dora L. Costa
Publisher: Journal of Economic Perspectives
Date: 03/2000
Bait and Switch: The (Futile) Pursuit of the American Dream Barbara Ehrenreich

Bait and Switch: The (Futile) Pursuit of the American Dream

Author: Barbara Ehrenreich
Publisher: Metropolitan Books
Date:

Safety Net - Multimedia

Sorry, but no media items exist for this research group.