Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration

  • C. Matthew Snipp
  • Tomas Jimenez
  • Linda Burton
  • Hazel Markus
  • Douglas Massey
  • Marybeth Mattingly

Leaders: Linda Burton, Tomás Jiménez, Hazel Markus, Douglas Massey, Marybeth Mattingly, C. Matthew Snipp

The CPI has an extensive research program on race, ethnicity, immigration, and poverty. The National Poverty Study, for example, is designed to rigorously compare differences across rural black, deindustrialized, reservation, and other “racialized” poverty forms. The CPI also runs a comprehensive program on Hispanic poverty that explores such topics as the “chilling effect” of anti-immigrant laws on program use, the reasons why, contrary to much speculation, the Hispanic poverty rate has not taken off, and the causes of the so-called Hispanic Health Paradox (see, for example, our Pathways Magazine special report on poverty, inequality, and mobility among Hispanics). And one of the CPI’s most distinguished affiliates, Jennifer Eberhardt (who is on the CPI directorate), is carrying out a groundbreaking big-data analysis of policing and race. We list below a sampling of other CPI projects on race, ethnicity, immigration, and poverty.

Poverty among refugees: The U.S. refugee population faces very high rates of poverty, yet we know very little about the effects of different resettlement programs and approaches. There are efforts afoot to exploit available administrative data and begin to find out what works and what doesn’t.

Arrests, race, and poverty: Why are some arrests resolved informally while others are converted into a criminal record that then has a life-long scarring effect? The process of converting an arrest into a criminal booking may play an important role in generating downstream racial disparities.

Reducing the race gap in test scores: The new Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA) is a rich resource that is providing the most systematic evidence to date on the capacity of school-district policies to reduce the racial gap in test scores.

Poverty and schooling on reservations: Why are test scores and educational outcomes on Native reservations so low (relative to the national average)? In a new project by the noted ethnographer Martin Sánchez-Jankowski, we’ll be learning more about how traditional and formal education are viewed and the ways in which they might be better integrated. 

Race And Ethnicity - CPI Research

Title Author Media
Intergenerational Advancement of the Mexican-Origin Population in California and Texas Relative to a Changing U. S. Mainstream Julie Park, Dowell Myers, Tomás R. Jiménez

Intergenerational Advancement of the Mexican-Origin Population in California and Texas Relative to a Changing U. S. Mainstream

Author: Julie Park, Dowell Myers, Tomás R. Jiménez
Publisher: International Migration Review
Date: 06/2014

We combine two approaches to gauge the achievements of the Mexican-origin second generation: one the intergenerational progress between immigrant parents and children, the other the gap between the second generation and non-Latino whites. We measure advancement of the Mexican-origin second generation using a suite of census-derived outcomes applied to immigrant parents in 1980 and grown children in 2005, as observed in California and Texas. Patterns of second-generation upward mobility are similar in the two states, with important differences across outcome indicators. Assessments are less favorable for men than women, especially in Texas. We compare Mexican-Americans to a non-Latino white reference group, as do most assimilation studies. However, we separate the reference group into those born in the same state as the second generation and those who have migrated in. We find that selective in-migration of more highly-educated whites has raised the bar on some, not all, measures of attainment. This poses a challenge to studies of assimilation that do not compare grown-children to their fellow natives of a state. Our model of greater temporal and regional specificity has broad applicability to studies guided by all theories of immigrant assimilation, integration and advancement.

Aboriginal Populations: Social, Demographic, and Epidemiological Perspectives

Aboriginal Populations: Social, Demographic, and Epidemiological Perspectives

Author:
Publisher: University of Alberta Press
Date: 05/2014

"The overarching theme of this volume is that Canada's Aboriginal population has reached a critical stage of transition, from a situation in the past characterized by delayed modernization, extreme socio-economic deficit, and minimal control over their demography, to a point of social, political, economic, and demographic ascendancy." -from the Preface. Experts from around the world review and extend the research on Aboriginal Peoples in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the circumpolar North, mapping recent changes in their demography, health, and sociology and comparing their conditions with that of Aboriginal Peoples in other countries. Contributors point to policies and research needed to meet the challenges Aboriginal Peoples are likely to face in the 21st century. This substantial volume will prove indispensable and timely to researchers, policy analysts, students, and teachers of social demography and Native Studies. Contributors: Chris Andersen, Nicholas Biddle, Michael J. Chandler, Stewart Clatworthy, Senada Delic, James Frideres, Gustave J. Goldmann, Eric Guimond, Malcolm King, Brenda Kobayashi, Tahu H. Kukutai, Ron F. Laliberté, Roger C.A. Maaka, Mary Jane Norris, Evelyn J. Peters, Andrey N. Petrov, Ian Pool, Sarah Prout, Norbert Robitaille, Anatole Romaniuk, Sacha Senécal, C. Matthew Snipp, John Taylor, Frank Trovato, Ravi B.P. Verma, Cora J. Voyageur, Paul C. Whitehead, Mandy L.M. Yap, T. Kue Young.

Immigration and the Great Recession Douglas S. Massey

Immigration and the Great Recession

Author: Douglas S. Massey
Publisher:
Date: 10/2012

Immigration has been a major component of demographic change in the United States over the past several decades, constituting at least a third of U.S. population growth and up to a half of labor force growth in any given year. By any standard, it is a central feature of the nation’s political economy and thus especially important to monitor as the Great Recession plays out. This brief reviews levels and patterns of immigration to the United States over the past three decades, with a particular focus on their implications for the nation as it recovers from the worst economic downturn since the 1930s.

Origins of the New Latino Underclass Douglas S. Massey, Karen A. Pren

Origins of the New Latino Underclass

Author: Douglas S. Massey, Karen A. Pren
Publisher: Springer US
Date: 04/2012

Over the past four decades, the Latino population of the United States was transformed from a small, ethnically segmented population of Mexicans in the southwest, Puerto Ricans in New York, and Cubans in Miami into a large national population dominated by Mexicans, Central Americans, and South Americans. This transformation occurred through mass immigration, much of it undocumented, to the point where large fractions of non-Caribbean Hispanics lack legal protections and rights in the United States. Rising illegality is critical to understanding the disadvantaged status of Latinos today. The unauthorized population began to grow after avenues for legal entry were curtailed in 1965. The consequent rise in undocumented migration enabled political and bureaucratic entrepreneurs to frame Latino migration as a grave threat to the nation, leading to a rising frequency of negative framings in the media, a growing conservative reaction, and increasingly restrictive immigration and border policies that generated more apprehensions. Rising apprehensions, in turn, further enflamed the conservative reaction to produce even harsher enforcement and more still more apprehensions, yielding a self-feeding cycle in which apprehensions kept rising even though undocumented inflows had stabilized. The consequent militarization of the border had the perverse effect of reducing rates of out-migration rather than inhibiting in-migration, leading to a sharp rise in net undocumented population and rapid growth of the undocumented population. As a result, a majority of Mexican, Central American, and South American immigrants are presently undocumented at a time when unauthorized migrants are subject to increasing sanctions from authorities and the public, yielding downward pressure on the status and well-being of Latinos in the United States.

Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America Daniel T. Lichter

Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America

Author: Daniel T. Lichter
Publisher: Wiley Online Library
Date: 03/2012

This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic development, schools and schooling, demographic change, intergroup relations, and politics. The goal here is to plainly illustrate how America's racial and ethnic transformation has emerged as an important dimension of ongoing U.S. urbanization and urbanism, growing cultural and economic heterogeneity, and a putative “decline in community” in rural America. Rural communities provide a natural laboratory for better understanding the implications of uneven settlement and racial diversity, acculturation, and economic and political incorporation among Hispanic newcomers. This article raises the prospect of a new racial balkanization and outlines key impediments to full incorporation of Hispanics into rural and small town community life. Immigration and the new ethnoracial diversity will be at the leading edge of major changes in rural community life as the nation moves toward becoming a majority-minority society by 2042.

Race And Ethnicity - CPI Affiliates

William T. Bielby Professor of Sociology University of Illinois- Chicago

Pages

Race And Ethnicity - Other Research

Title Author Media
When the Border Is “Everywhere”: State-level Variation in Migration Control and Changing Settlement Patterns of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population in the United States Arjen Leerkes, James D. Bachmeier, Mark A. Leach

When the Border Is “Everywhere”: State-level Variation in Migration Control and Changing Settlement Patterns of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population in the United States

Author: Arjen Leerkes, James D. Bachmeier, Mark A. Leach
Publisher: International Migration Review
Date: 12/2013

Governments increasingly exclude unauthorized migrants from labor markets and public provisions and apprehend those who have settled in the territory. In the U.S., recent increases in interior control coincided with a reduction in (the growth of) the estimated unauthorized population. This study describes the mechanisms through which interior control may impact migration patterns and analyzes whether interior control has been responsible for the changing settlement patterns. We find that when the effects of labor markets and internal dynamics of migration processes are controlled, policy has a (moderate) negative effect on estimated levels of unauthorized residence, both in individual states and the U.S. as a whole.

See No Spanish: Language, Local Context, and Attitudes Toward Immigration Daniel J. Hopkins, Van C. Tran, Abigail Fisher Williamson

See No Spanish: Language, Local Context, and Attitudes Toward Immigration

Author: Daniel J. Hopkins, Van C. Tran, Abigail Fisher Williamson
Publisher: Politics, Groups, and Identities
Date: 07/2013

Explanations of Americans’ attitudes toward immigration emphasize threats to national identity and culture. However, we do not know the specific sources of cultural threat or whether theyoperate locally. Native-born residents commonly voice concerns about the prevalence of Spanish, suggesting that foreign languages might be one such source of threat. This articleuses survey experiments to provide one of the first causal tests of the impact of written Spanish on Americans’ immigration attitudes. One experiment (N = 351) was conducted online with a nationally representative sample, while a second was embedded in an exit poll (N = 902). The experiments show that Spanish has differential impacts depending on Americans’ prior contact with it. Among those who hear Spanish frequently in day-to-daylife, seeing written Spanish induces anti-immigration attitudes. These findings suggest that language can foster cultural threat, and they highlight a mechanism through which local encounters can be threatening.

Migration, Selection, Protection, and Acculturation in Health: A Binational Perspective on Older Adults Fernando Riosmena, Rebeca Wong, Alberto Palloni

Migration, Selection, Protection, and Acculturation in Health: A Binational Perspective on Older Adults

Author: Fernando Riosmena, Rebeca Wong, Alberto Palloni
Publisher: Demography
Date: 06/2013

In this article, we test for four potential explanations of the Hispanic Health Paradox (HHP): the "salmon bias," emigration selection, and sociocultural protection originating in either destination or sending country. To reduce biases related to attrition by return migration typical of most U.S.-based surveys, we combine data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study in Mexico and the U.S. National Health Interview Survey to compare self-reported diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, obesity, and self-rated health among Mexican-born men ages 50 and older according to their previous U.S. migration experience, and U.S.-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. We also use height, a measure of health during childhood, to bolster some of our tests. We find an immigrant advantage relative to non-Hispanic whites in hypertension and, to a lesser extent, obesity. We find evidence consistent with emigration selection and the salmon bias in height, hypertension, and self-rated health among immigrants with less than 15 years of experience in the United States; we do not find conclusive evidence consistent with sociocultural protection mechanisms. Finally, we illustrate that although ignoring return migrants when testing for the HHP and its mechanisms, as well as for the association between U.S. experience and health, exaggerates these associations, they are not fully driven by return migration-related attrition.

Less Than Equal: Racial Disparities in Wealth Accumulation Signe-Mary McKernan, Caroline Ratcliffe, Eugene Steuerle, Sisi Zhang

Less Than Equal: Racial Disparities in Wealth Accumulation

Author: Signe-Mary McKernan, Caroline Ratcliffe, Eugene Steuerle, Sisi Zhang
Publisher: Urban Institute
Date: 04/2013

When it comes to economic gaps between whites and communities of color in the United States, income inequality tells part of the story. But let's not forget about wealth. Wealth isn't just money in the bank, it's insurance against tough times, tuition to get a better education and a better job, savings to retire on, and a springboard into the middle class. In short, wealth translates into opportunity.

Terrorist Events and Attitudes Toward Immigrants: A Natural Experiment Joscha Legewie

Terrorist Events and Attitudes Toward Immigrants: A Natural Experiment

Author: Joscha Legewie
Publisher: American Journal of Sociology
Date: 03/2013

Using a quasi-experimental research design, this study examines the effect of terrorist events on the perception of immigrants across 65 regions in nine European countries. It first elaborates a theoretical argument that explains the effect of events and points to economic conditions, the size of the immigrant population, and personal contact as mediating factors. This argument is evaluated using the fact that the terror attack in Bali on October 12, 2002, occurred during the fieldwork period of the European Social Survey. The findings from this natural experiment reveal considerable cross-national and regional variation in the effect of the event and its temporal duration. The analysis on the regional level supports the argument about contextual variations in the response to the event and a second analysis based on the 2004 Madrid bombing confirms the study’s conclusions. Implications of the findings for societal responses to terror attacks, the literature on attitudes toward immigrants, and survey research are discussed.

Race And Ethnicity - Multimedia

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