Education

  • Sean Reardon

Leader: Sean Reardon

The purpose of the Education RG is to examine trends in the extent to which educational access and achievement are related to poverty and family background. The scholars working within this RG are examining state-level differences in the effects of social origins, uncovering the causes of the recent rise in the socioeconomic achievement gap, uncovering the causes of the yet more recent turnaround in this rise (among kindergarten children), and examining the ways in which high-achieving children from poor backgrounds can be induced to go to college. The following is a sampling of relevant CPI projects.

Reducing the race gap in test scores: How can the black-white gap in achievement test scores be eliminated? The new Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA) will provide the most systematic evidence to date on the capacity of school-district policies to reduce the gap.

Colleges and rising income inequality: Are colleges delivering upward mobility for those raised in poverty? The new “Mobility Report Card” will provide unusually detailed data on this fundamental question.

Poverty and schooling on reservations: The noted ethnographer Martin Sánchez-Jankowski is examining how education on reservations can be reformed to reduce dropout, poverty, and suicide. 

Education - CPI Research

Title Author Media
The Economic Returns to Higher Education in the BRIC Countries and Their Implications for Higher Education Expansion Martin Carnoy, Prashant Loyalka, Greg V. Androuschchak, Anna Proudnikova

The Economic Returns to Higher Education in the BRIC Countries and Their Implications for Higher Education Expansion

Author: Martin Carnoy, Prashant Loyalka, Greg V. Androuschchak, Anna Proudnikova
Publisher:
Date: 01/2012

This paper focuses on the changing economic value of secondary and higher education in four potential world economic powerhouses - Brazil, Russia, India, and China - known as the BRIC countries. We show that in the past twenty-five years in the BRIC countries, changes in rates of return to higher education have not conformed to the diminishing returns to capital theory, which says that rates decline with level of education and that this pattern holds as countries develop economically and educationally. The rates to university completion have generally risen relative to the rates to investment in lower levels of education, and in all but India are now higher than the payoff to secondary schooling. We argue that this reflects the rapid economic change in all four countries, including their incorporation into the global economy, and, in Russia and China, the transformation from command to increasingly market economies.

Ethnic Inequality in Choice-Driven Education Systems Michelle Jackson, Jan O. Jonsson, Frida Rudolphi

Ethnic Inequality in Choice-Driven Education Systems

Author: Michelle Jackson, Jan O. Jonsson, Frida Rudolphi
Publisher:
Date: 11/2011
The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations Sean F. Reardon

The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations

Author: Sean F. Reardon
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation Press
Date: 07/2011

In this chapter I examine whether and how the relationship between family socioeconomic characteristics and academic achievement has changed during the last fifty years. In particular, I investigate the extent to which the rising income inequality of the last four decades has been paralleled by a similar increase in the income achievement gradient. As the income gap between high- and low-income families has widened, has the achievement gap between children in high- and low-income families also widened? The answer, in brief, is yes. The achievement gap between children from high- and low-income families is roughly 30 to 40 percent larger among children born in 2001 than among those born twenty-five years earlier. In fact, it appears that the income achievement gap has been growing for at least fifty years, though the data are less certain for cohorts of children born before 1970. In this chapter, I describe and discuss these trends in some detail. In addition to the key finding that the income achievement gap appears to have widened substantially, there are a number of other important findings. First, the income achievement gap (defined here as the average achievement difference between a child from a family at the 90th percentile of the family income distribution and a child from a family at the 10th percentile) is now nearly twice as large as the black-white achievement gap. Fifty years ago, in contrast, the black-white gap was one and a half to two times as large as the income gap. Second, as Greg Duncan and Katherine Magnuson note in chapter 3 of this volume, the income achievement gap is large when children enter kindergarten and does not appear to grow (or narrow) appreciably as children progress through school. Third, although rising income inequality may play a role in the growing income achievement gap, it does not appear to be the dominant factor. The gap appears to have grown at least partly because of an increase in the association between family income and children's academic achievement for families above the median income level: a given difference in family incomes now corresponds to a 30 to 60 percent larger difference in achievement than it did for children born in the 1970s. Moreover, evidence from other studies suggests that this may be in playnodeposit.com part a result of increasing parental investment in children's cognitive development. Finally, the growing income achievement gap does not appear to be a result of a growing achievement gap between children with highly and less-educated parents. Indeed, the relationship between parental education and children's achievement has remained relatively stable during the last fifty years, whereas the relationship between income and achievement has grown sharply. Family income is now nearly as strong as parental education in predicting children's achievement.

Educational Mobility Since the 1930s Michael Hout, Alexander Janus

Educational Mobility Since the 1930s

Author: Michael Hout, Alexander Janus
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Date: 01/2011
Teacher Education and the American Future Linda Darling-Hammond

Teacher Education and the American Future

Author: Linda Darling-Hammond
Publisher: Sage Publications
Date: 01/2010

For teacher education, this is perhaps the best of times and the worst of times. It may be the best of times because many teacher educators have done so much hard work over the past two decades to develop more successful program models and because voters have just elected a president of the United States who has a strong commitment to the improvement of teaching. It may be the worst of times because there are so many forces in the environment that conspire to undermine these efforts. In this article, the author discusses the U.S. context for teacher education, the power of teacher preparation for transforming teaching and learning, and the current challenges for this enterprise in the United States.

 

education - CPI Affiliates

Harry B. G. Ganzeboom Professor of Sociology and Social Research Methodology
Free University Amsterdam
Mariah Debra Ruperti Evans's picture Mariah Debra Ruperti Evans Professor of Sociology
University of Nevada, Reno
Michelle Jackson Assistant Professor of Sociology
Stanford University
Mario Luis Small's picture Mario Luis Small Grafstein Family Professor, Department of Sociology
Harvard University
Yossi Shavit Weinberg Professor of Sociology
Tel Aviv University

Pages

Education - Other Research

Title Author Media
Opportunity and Change David L. Featherman and Robert M. Hauser

Opportunity and Change

Author: David L. Featherman and Robert M. Hauser
Publisher: Academic Press
Date:
Life Course Risks, Mobility Regimes, and Mobility Consequences: A Comparison of Sweden, Germany, and the U.S. Thomas A. DiPrete

Life Course Risks, Mobility Regimes, and Mobility Consequences: A Comparison of Sweden, Germany, and the U.S.

Author: Thomas A. DiPrete
Publisher: American Journal of Sociology
Date:
Learning to Labor: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs Paul Willis

Learning to Labor: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs

Author: Paul Willis
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Date:
Money, Morals, and Manners: The Culture of the French and the American Upper-Middle Class Michele Lamont

Money, Morals, and Manners: The Culture of the French and the American Upper-Middle Class

Author: Michele Lamont
Publisher: The University of Chicago Press
Date:
The Rise of Intra-Occupational Wage Inequality in the United States, 1983 to 2002 Chang Kim, Hwan and Arthur Sakamoto

The Rise of Intra-Occupational Wage Inequality in the United States, 1983 to 2002

Author: Chang Kim, Hwan and Arthur Sakamoto
Publisher: American Sociological Review
Date:

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