Education

  • Sean Reardon

Leader: Sean Reardon

The purpose of the Education RG is to examine trends in the extent to which educational access and achievement are related to poverty and family background. The scholars working within this RG are examining state-level differences in the effects of social origins, uncovering the causes of the recent rise in the socioeconomic achievement gap, uncovering the causes of the yet more recent turnaround in this rise (among kindergarten children), and examining the ways in which high-achieving children from poor backgrounds can be induced to go to college. The following is a sampling of relevant CPI projects.

Reducing the race gap in test scores: How can the black-white gap in achievement test scores be eliminated? The new Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA) will provide the most systematic evidence to date on the capacity of school-district policies to reduce the gap.

Colleges and rising income inequality: Are colleges delivering upward mobility for those raised in poverty? The new “Mobility Report Card” will provide unusually detailed data on this fundamental question.

Poverty and schooling on reservations: The noted ethnographer Martin Sánchez-Jankowski is examining how education on reservations can be reformed to reduce dropout, poverty, and suicide. 

Education - CPI Research

Title Author Media
Football as a Status System in U.S. Higher Education Arik Lifschitz, Michael Sauder, Mitchell L. Stevens

Football as a Status System in U.S. Higher Education

Author: Arik Lifschitz, Michael Sauder, Mitchell L. Stevens
Publisher: Sociology of Education
Date: 07/2014

Sociologists have focused almost exclusively on academic aspects of status in higher education, despite the prominence of nonacademic activities, specifically athletics, in U.S. colleges and universities. We use the case of football to investigate whether intercollegiate sports influence the distribution of status in U.S. higher education. Analyzing data on conference affiliations and other organizational characteristics of 287 schools over time, we find evidence of an athletic status system. Our work expands understanding of status in U.S. higher education, enriches prior explanations for the prominence of football, and generates tractable insights about the ongoing evolution of the intercollegiate conference system.

60 Years After Brown: Trends and Consequences of School Segregation Sean F. Reardon, Ann Owens

60 Years After Brown: Trends and Consequences of School Segregation

Author: Sean F. Reardon, Ann Owens
Publisher:
Date: 07/2014

Since the Supreme Court's 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, researchers and policy makers have paid close attention to trends in school segregation. Here we review the evidence regarding trends and consequences of both racial and economic school segregation sinceBrown. The evidence suggests that the most significant declines in black-white school segregation occurred in the late 1960s and early 1970s. There is disagreement about the direction of more recent trends in racial segregation, largely driven by how one defines and measures segregation. Depending on the definition used, segregation has either increased substantially or changed little, although there are important differences in the trends across regions, racial groups, and institutional levels. Limited evidence on school economic segregation makes documenting trends difficult, but students appear to be more segregated by income across schools and districts today than in 1990. We also discuss the role of desegregation litigation, demographic changes, and residential segregation in shaping trends in both racial and economic segregation. We develop a general conceptual model of how and why school segregation might affect students and review the relatively thin body of empirical evidence that explicitly assesses the consequences of school segregation. We conclude with a discussion of aspects of school segregation on which further research is needed.

Social and Economic Returns to College Education in the United States Michael Hout

Social and Economic Returns to College Education in the United States

Author: Michael Hout
Publisher:
Date: 04/2013

Education correlates strongly with most important social and economic outcomes such as economic success, health, family stability, and social connections. Theories of stratification and selection created doubts about whether education actually caused good things to happen. Because schools and colleges select who continues and who does not, it was easy to imagine that education added little of substance. Evidence now tips the balance away from bias and selection and in favor of substance. Investments in education pay off for individuals in many ways. The size of the direct effect of education varies among individuals and demographic groups. Education affects individuals and groups who are less likely to pursue a college education more than traditional college students. A smaller literature on social returns to education indicates that communities, states, and nations also benefit from increased education of their populations; some estimates imply that the social returns exceed the private returns.

Determined to Succeed? Performance versus Choice in Educational Attainment Michelle Jackson

Determined to Succeed? Performance versus Choice in Educational Attainment

Author: Michelle Jackson
Publisher: Stanford University Press
Date: 01/2013

In many countries, concern about socio-economic inequalities in educational attainment has focused on inequalities in test scores and grades. The presumption has been that the best way to reduce inequalities in educational outcomes is to reduce inequalities in performance. But is this presumption correct?

Determined to Succeed? is the first book to offer a comprehensive cross-national examination of the roles of performance and choice in generating inequalities in educational attainment. It combines in-depth studies by country specialists with chapters discussing more general empirical, methodological, and theoretical aspects of educational inequality. The aim is to investigate to what extent inequalities in educational attainment can be attributed to differences in academic performance between socio-economic groups, and to what extent they can be attributed to differences in the choices made by students from these groups. The contributors focus predominantly on inequalities related to parental class and parental education.

Determined to Succeed? Performance Versus Choice in Educational Attainment Michelle Jackson

Determined to Succeed? Performance Versus Choice in Educational Attainment

Author: Michelle Jackson
Publisher: Stanford University Press
Date: 01/2013

In many countries, concern about socio-economic inequalities in educational attainment has focused on inequalities in test scores and grades. The presumption has been that the best way to reduce inequalities in educational outcomes is to reduce inequalities in performance. But is this presumption correct? Determined to Succeed? is the first book to offer a comprehensive cross-national examination of the roles of performance and choice in generating inequalities in educational attainment. It combines in-depth studies by country specialists with chapters discussing more general empirical, methodological, and theoretical aspects of educational inequality. The aim is to investigate to what extent inequalities in educational attainment can be attributed to differences in academic performance between socio-economic groups, and to what extent they can be attributed to differences in the choices made by students from these groups. The contributors focus predominantly on inequalities related to parental class and parental education.

education - CPI Affiliates

Gary N. Marks's picture Gary N. Marks Principal Research Fellow, Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER)
Australian Catholic University
Paul M. De Graaf's picture Paul M. De Graaf Professor of Sociology
Nijmegen University
George Farkas's picture George Farkas Professor, School of Education
UC Irvine
Ann Dryden Witte's picture Ann Dryden Witte Professor Emerita of Economics
Wellesley College
Paul Peterson's picture Paul Peterson Henry Lee Shattuck Professor of Government, Director, Program on Education Policy and Governance; Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University; Senior Editor of Education Next
Harvard University

Pages

Education - Other Research

Title Author Media
The Race Between Education and Technology Goldin, Claudia, Lawrence F. Katz

The Race Between Education and Technology

Author: Goldin, Claudia, Lawrence F. Katz
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Date: 03/2010
Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success Bowles, Samuel, Herbert Gintis, Melissa Osborne Groves

Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success

Author: Bowles, Samuel, Herbert Gintis, Melissa Osborne Groves
Publisher: Princeton University Press and Russell Sage
Date: 01/2005
Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America Jencks, Christopher, Marshall Smith, Henry Acland...

Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America

Author: Jencks, Christopher, Marshall Smith, Henry Acland...
Publisher:
Date: 10/1972
Classes in Contemporary Capitalism Nicos Poulantzas

Classes in Contemporary Capitalism

Author: Nicos Poulantzas
Publisher: Schocken Books
Date:
The Constant Flux: A Study of Class Mobility in Industrial Societies Erikson, Robert and John H. Goldthrope

The Constant Flux: A Study of Class Mobility in Industrial Societies

Author: Erikson, Robert and John H. Goldthrope
Publisher: Clarendon Press
Date:

Education - Multimedia

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