Education

  • Sean Reardon

Leader: Sean Reardon

The purpose of the Education RG is to examine trends in the extent to which educational access and achievement are related to poverty and family background. The scholars working within this RG are examining state-level differences in the effects of social origins, uncovering the causes of the recent rise in the socioeconomic achievement gap, uncovering the causes of the yet more recent turnaround in this rise (among kindergarten children), and examining the ways in which high-achieving children from poor backgrounds can be induced to go to college. The following is a sampling of relevant CPI projects.

Reducing the race gap in test scores: How can the black-white gap in achievement test scores be eliminated? The new Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA) will provide the most systematic evidence to date on the capacity of school-district policies to reduce the gap.

Colleges and rising income inequality: Are colleges delivering upward mobility for those raised in poverty? The new “Mobility Report Card” will provide unusually detailed data on this fundamental question.

Poverty and schooling on reservations: The noted ethnographer Martin Sánchez-Jankowski is examining how education on reservations can be reformed to reduce dropout, poverty, and suicide. 

Education - CPI Research

Title Author Media
State of the States: Education Sean F. Reardon

State of the States: Education

Author: Sean F. Reardon
Publisher:
Date: 02/2015
Remaking College: The Changing Ecology of Higher Education

Remaking College: The Changing Ecology of Higher Education

Author:
Publisher: Stanford University Press
Date: 01/2015

Between 1945 and 1990 the United States built the largest and most productive higher education system in world history. Over the last two decades, however, dramatic budget cuts to public academic services and skyrocketing tuition have made college completion more difficult for many. Nevertheless, the democratic promise of education and the global competition for educated workers mean ever growing demand.

Remaking College considers this changing context, arguing that a growing accountability revolution, the push for greater efficiency and productivity, and the explosion of online learning are changing the character of higher education.

Teacher Quality Policy When Supply Matters Jesse Rothstein

Teacher Quality Policy When Supply Matters

Author: Jesse Rothstein
Publisher: American Economic Review
Date: 01/2015

Teacher contracts that condition pay and retention on demonstrated performance can improve selection into and out of teaching. I study alternative contracts in a simulated teacher labor market that incorporates dynamic self-selection and Bayesian learning. Bonus policies create only modest incentives and thus have small effects on selection. Reductions in tenure rates can have larger effects, but must be accompanied by substantial salary increases; elimination of tenure confers little additional benefit unless firing rates are extremely high. Benefits of both bonus and tenure policies exceed costs, though optimal policies are sensitive to labor market parameters about which little is known.

Feeling at Home in College: Fortifying School-Relevant Selves to Reduce Social Class Disparities in Higher Education Nicole M. Stephens, Tiffany N. Brannon, Hazel Rose Markus, Jessica E. Nelson

Feeling at Home in College: Fortifying School-Relevant Selves to Reduce Social Class Disparities in Higher Education

Author: Nicole M. Stephens, Tiffany N. Brannon, Hazel Rose Markus, Jessica E. Nelson
Publisher: Social Issues and Policy Review
Date: 01/2015

Social class disparities in higher education between working-class students (i.e., students who are low income and/or do not have parents with four-year college degrees) and middle-class students (i.e., students who are high income and/or have at least one parent with a four year-degree) are on the rise. There is an urgent need for interventions, or changes to universities' ideas and practices, to increase working-class students' access to and performance in higher education. The current article identifies key factors that characterize successful interventions aimed at reducing social class disparities, and proposes additional interventions that have the potential to improve working-class students' chances of college success. As we propose in the article, effective interventions must first address key individual and structural factors that can create barriers to students' college success. At the same time, interventions should also fortify school-relevant selves, or increase students' sense that the pursuit of a college degree is central to “who I am.” When students experience this strong connection between their selves and what it means to attend and perform well in college, they will gain a sense that they fit in the academic environment and will be empowered to do what it takes to succeed there.

Football as a Status System in U.S. Higher Education Arik Lifschitz, Michael Sauder, Mitchell L. Stevens

Football as a Status System in U.S. Higher Education

Author: Arik Lifschitz, Michael Sauder, Mitchell L. Stevens
Publisher: Sociology of Education
Date: 07/2014

Sociologists have focused almost exclusively on academic aspects of status in higher education, despite the prominence of nonacademic activities, specifically athletics, in U.S. colleges and universities. We use the case of football to investigate whether intercollegiate sports influence the distribution of status in U.S. higher education. Analyzing data on conference affiliations and other organizational characteristics of 287 schools over time, we find evidence of an athletic status system. Our work expands understanding of status in U.S. higher education, enriches prior explanations for the prominence of football, and generates tractable insights about the ongoing evolution of the intercollegiate conference system.

education - CPI Affiliates

Solomon Polachek's picture Solomon Polachek University Distinguished Professor; IZA Research Fellow
Binghamton University
Julie-Berry Cullen Professor of Economics, Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research
University of California, San Diego
Martin Carnoy's picture Martin Carnoy Vida Jacks Professor of Education
Stanford University
Stanley Aronowitz Distinguished Professor
City University of New York
Kazuo Yamaguchi's picture Kazuo Yamaguchi Ralph Lewis Professor of Sociology; Affiliated Faculty, The Center for East Asian Studies
University of Chicago

Pages

Education - Other Research

Title Author Media
The Impact of Early Experience on Childhood Brain Development: Nathan Fox Nathan Fox

The Impact of Early Experience on Childhood Brain Development: Nathan Fox

Author: Nathan Fox
Publisher:
Date: 04/2010

On April 13, 2010, the Center on Children and Families at Brookings and the Center for the Study of Poverty and Inequality at Stanford University sponsored an event that focused on the science of early brain development and the role that chronic stress early in life plays in the arrested development of children raised in risky situations. The policy implications of these and similar findings were discussed. This segment features Nathan A. Fox, Professor, University of Maryland, describing pioneering work that he and his colleagues carried out in Bucharest, Romania, looking at how institutionalization of children can profoundly harm children’s brain development.


The Race Between Education and Technology Goldin, Claudia, Lawrence F. Katz

The Race Between Education and Technology

Author: Goldin, Claudia, Lawrence F. Katz
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Date: 03/2010
Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success Bowles, Samuel, Herbert Gintis, Melissa Osborne Groves

Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success

Author: Bowles, Samuel, Herbert Gintis, Melissa Osborne Groves
Publisher: Princeton University Press and Russell Sage
Date: 01/2005
Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America Jencks, Christopher, Marshall Smith, Henry Acland...

Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America

Author: Jencks, Christopher, Marshall Smith, Henry Acland...
Publisher:
Date: 10/1972
The Rise of Intra-Occupational Wage Inequality in the United States, 1983 to 2002 Chang Kim, Hwan and Arthur Sakamoto

The Rise of Intra-Occupational Wage Inequality in the United States, 1983 to 2002

Author: Chang Kim, Hwan and Arthur Sakamoto
Publisher: American Sociological Review
Date:

Education - Multimedia

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